Legalizing gay marriage will not harm the institution of marriage, and same-sex marriages may even be more stable than heterosexual marriages. A study published on Apr. 13, 2009 in Social Science Quarterly found that "[l]aws permitting same-sex marriage or civil unions have no adverse effect on marriage, divorce, and abortion rates, [or] the percent of children born out of wedlock." [48] A Nov. 2011 study by UCLA's Williams Institute reported that the rate at which legally recognized same-sex couples (in marriages or civil unions, etc.) end their relationships is 1.1% on average, while 2% of married different-sex couples divorce annually. [115] The Executive Board of the American Anthropological Association found that more than a century of research has shown "no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution. Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies." [8]


As adjectives the difference between bisexual and transgender is that bisexual is (sexuality|of humans or other animals) sexually attracted to members of two or more genders while transgender is (narrowly|of a person) having a gender identity (self-image) which is the opposite of one's physical sex: being physically male but identifying as female, or vice versa.
Health-practitioner manuals, professional journalistic style guides, and LGBT advocacy groups advise the adoption by others of the name and pronouns identified by the person in question, including present references to the transgender person's past.[30][31] Many also note that transgender should be used as an adjective, not a noun (for example, "Max is transgender" or "Max is a transgender man", not "Max is a transgender"), and that transgender should be used, not transgendered.[32][33][34]

In December 2015, the Vienna Administrative Court dismissed a case challenging the same-sex marriage ban. The plaintiffs appealed to the Constitutional Court.[179] On 12 October 2017, the Constitutional Court agreed to consider one of the cases challenging the law barring same-sex marriage.[180][181][182] On 5 December 2017, the Court struck down the ban on same-sex marriage as unconstitutional. Thus, same-sex couples have been allowed to marry since 1 January 2019. The Court also decided that civil unions will be open for both same-sex and different-sex couples from that date onwards.[183][184][185][186][187]
Traditional marriage is already threatened with high divorce rates (between 40% and 50%), and 40.7% of babies were born to unmarried mothers in 2012. [50] [51] [116] Former US Senator (R-PA) and presidential candidate Rick Santorum stated that "Legalization of gay marriage would further undermine an institution that is essential to the well-being of children and our society. Do we need to confuse future generations of Americans even more about the role and importance of an institution that is so critical to the stability of our country?" [137] Ryan T. Anderson, William E. Simon Fellow in Religion and a Free Society at The Heritage Foundation, said "In recent decades, marriage has been weakened by a revisionist view that is more about adults’ desires than children’s needs... Redefining marriage to include same-sex relationships is the culmination of this revisionism, and it would leave emotional intensity as the only thing that sets marriage apart from other bonds." [70]

Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January 1972, a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust.[108] In a September 1976 interview with Playboy, Bowie said, "It's true—I am a bisexual. But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me."[109] In a 1983 interview, he said it was "the biggest mistake I ever made",[110][111] elaborating in 2002 he explained "I don't think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a lot tougher in America. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [...] America is a very puritanical place, and I think it stood in the way of so much I wanted to do."[112]

On July 22, 2005, the first Latvian gay pride march took place in Riga, surrounded by protesters. It had previously been banned by the Riga City Council, and the then-Prime Minister of Latvia, Aigars Kalvītis, opposed the event, stating Riga should "not promote things like that", however a court decision allowed the march to go ahead.[78] In 2006, LGBT people in Latvia attempted a Parade but were assaulted by "No Pride" protesters, an incident sparking a storm of international media pressure and protests from the European Parliament at the failure of the Latvian authorities to adequately protect the Parade so that it could proceed.
A reference to same-sex marriage (by the Egyptians and Canaanites) exists in the Talmud. The Book of Leviticus prohibited homosexual relations (Lev. 18:22, 20:13), and the Jewish sages provide the reason for this as being that the Hebrews were warned not to "follow the acts of the land of Egypt or the acts of the land of Canaan". The sages explicitly state: "what did [the Egyptians and Canaanites] do? A man would marry a man and a woman [marry] a woman."[122]

‘”John” was suicidal. He had been bullied by trolls on social media for most of his life for being different. The bullies were primarily people who claimed, based on their religious beliefs, that “John” was going to hell and deserved to die. They described how they would kill him on his twitter page and people supported their hate. Desperate for help, John sought treatment for his shame, depression, and suicidality. Although he was scared to share about himself with a stranger, he felt desperate for help as he had NO desire to harm anyone, ever. Once he shared about his attraction to children, his therapist told him, “I don’t treat sex offenders,”’ a passage on The Prevention Project about MAPs reads.
THIS IS DISGUSTING! . I am offended, angry, and yes, hurt. If you see these signs, please tear them down immediately. . . . Hi! I’m Desmond from NYC. I’m a drag kid, dragutante, draganista and a total drag slayer. . I’m the youngest member of the iconic voguing House of UltraOmni and the founder of the first ever drag house for drag kids, the @hausofamazing. . I’m an awarded LGBTQ+ advocate. My motto is “Be Yourself, Always” . . My looks are androgynous and my style is ‘avant drag’. I’m inspired by RuPaul, the Club Kids, the Blitz Kids, Andy Warhol, Keith Haring, Marsha P. Johnson, Dragula, John Galliano, Alexander McQueen, and Comme Des Garçons. . A big thank you to my fans, the Amazies. . . . #noh8 . #altdrag #androgynous #avantdrag #babydrag #boysinmakeup #brooklyndrag #clubkid #clubkids #drag #draganista #dragart #dragartist #dragkid #dragkids #draglife #dragmodel #dragpunk #dragqueen #dragqueer #dragslayer #dragsuperstar #dragutante #nycdrag #queerartist – #desmondisamazing #beyourselfalways #amazies #hausofamazing – #houseofultraomni – booking: @pegmgmt
In other countries, decisions on same-sex marriage were effectively turned over to individual states or districts. In 2009 the Federal District (Mexico City), separate from other Mexican jurisdictions, legalized same-sex marriage. Soon after the law went into effect in 2010, Mexico’s Supreme Court ruled that it was constitutional and that all states in the country had to recognize same-sex marriages performed in Mexico City. Gay marriage was later made legal, under the same terms, elsewhere in the country. Similarly, shortly after Brazil legalized same-sex civil unions in 2011, the Supreme Federal Court ruled that sexual orientation could not be a pretext for denying a couple the legal protections of marriage, although it stopped short of specifically authorizing same-sex marriage at the federal level. In response, several Brazilian states separately opted to allow for same-sex marriages, which were considered valid throughout Brazil, before the National Council of Justice approved a resolution in 2013 ensuring that such unions could be registered anywhere in the country. Also in 2013, the Australian Capital Territory became the first jurisdiction in Australia to pass a law permitting the marriage of same-sex couples, although Australia’s High Court later struck down the law within days of its having taken effect. In 2017 a majority of Australians voted for same-sex marriage in a nonbinding referendum. Shortly thereafter the country’s Parliament passed legislation legalizing same-sex marriage, and it was signed into law in December 2017.
The prenatal hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain. This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. However, it has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due to high prenatal levels of unbound testosterone that results from a lack of receptors at particular brain sites. Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D:4D ratio could be over-masculinized.[56]
In 2019, Three transgender people who identify as male lost their legal bid on Friday to be recognised as such on their Hong Kong identity cards, in a setback for the LGBT movement to achieve equal rights. While expressing sympathy, High Court judge Mr Justice Thomas Au Hing-cheung ruled against the three applicants, Henry Tse, Q and R, They have all been legally recognised as men by the British government but are unable to get their gender changed on Hong Kong ID cards. The judge said that a complete sex change would be the only “workable way” for the local government to determine a person’s gender. Although the trio, all born female, identify as men, and have had their breasts removed and undergone hormone therapy, they all still have their uterus and ovaries – which was the point of contention in their legal challenges against the city’s commissioner of registration.[17][18]

The American Academy of Pediatrics has stated that "sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences."[43] The American Psychological Association has stated that "there are probably many reasons for a person's sexual orientation and the reasons may be different for different people". It further stated that, for most people, sexual orientation is determined at an early age.[44] The American Psychiatric Association stated: "To date there are no replicated scientific studies supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality. Similarly, no specific psychosocial or family dynamic cause for homosexuality has been identified, including histories of childhood sexual abuse."[45] Research into how sexual orientation may be determined by genetic or other prenatal factors plays a role in political and social debates about homosexuality, and also raises fears about genetic profiling and prenatal testing.[46]
August 4, 2010 June 28, 2013 Federal court decision → legislative statute U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California ruling in Perry v. Schwarzenegger, finding Proposition 8 unconstitutional. Stayed during appeal, affirmed by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals as Perry v. Brown. Certiorari granted and appealed as Hollingsworth v. Perry to the U.S. Supreme Court; the high court dismissed Hollingsworth for lack of standing and vacated the Ninth Circuit decision below, resulting with the original decision in Perry left intact.[60] Gender-neutral marriage bill passed by the California State Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of California took effect on January 1, 2015.[61]
^ Nestle, J. (2002) "...pluralistic challenges to the male/female, woman/man, gay/straight, butch/femme constructions and identities..." from Genders on My Mind, pp.3–10 in Genderqueer: Voices from Beyond the Sexual Binary, edited by Joan Nestle, Clare Howell and Riki Wilchins, published by Los Angeles:Alyson Publications, 2002:9. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
Uruguay's Chamber of Deputies passed a bill on 12 December 2012, to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples.[363] The Senate passed the bill on 2 April 2013, but with minor amendments. On 10 April 2013, the Chamber of Deputies passed the amended bill by a two-thirds majority (71–22). The president promulgated the law on 3 May 2013 and it took effect on 5 August.[364]
On 21 February 2017, Minister for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs, and Civil Liberties Helena Dalli said that she was preparing a bill to legalise same-sex marriage.[272] The bill was presented to Parliament on 5 July 2017.[273] The bill's last reading took place in Parliament on 12 July 2017, where it was approved 66-1. It was signed into law and published in the Government Gazette on 1 August 2017.[274] Malta became the 14th country in Europe to legalise same-sex marriage.[275][276]
Gay marriage is contrary to the word of God and is incompatible with the beliefs, sacred texts, and traditions of many religious groups. The Bible, in Leviticus 18:22, states: "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination," thus condemning homosexual relationships. [120] In Islamic tradition, several hadiths (passages attributed to the Prophet Muhammad) condemn gay and lesbian relationships, including the sayings "When a man mounts another man, the throne of God shakes," and "Sihaq [lesbian sex] of women is zina [illegitimate sexual intercourse]." [121] The Catholic Church, United Methodist Church, Southern Baptist Convention, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, National Association of Evangelicals, and American Baptist Churches USA all oppose same-sex marriage. [119] Two orthodox Jewish groups, the Orthodox Agudath Israel of America and the Orthodox Union, also oppose gay marriage, as does mainstream Islam. [13] [119] According to a July 31, 2003 statement from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and approved by Pope John Paul II, marriage "was established by the Creator with its own nature, essential properties and purpose. No ideology can erase from the human spirit the certainty that marriage exists solely between a man and a woman…" [54] Pope Benedict stated in Jan. 2012 that gay marriage threatened "the future of humanity itself." [145]

Individuals who are transgender and transsexual do not identify with the sex and/or gender constructs they were born into. People who are transgender feel a disconnect between their own internal concept of their gender and the gender roles made by their society. For example, someone born male may not feel much, if any, connection to what his culture has defined as being "masculine" and may instead strongly identify with what is typically defined as being "feminine."
Armenia has historically had few protections or recognition in law of same-sex couples. This changed in July 2017, when the Ministry of Justice revealed that all marriages performed abroad are valid in Armenia, including marriages between people of the same sex.[365] That made Armenia the second country of the former Soviet Union, after Estonia, to recognise same-sex marriages performed abroad, though it's not clear if the ruling has any practical effect. As of early 2019, "no such recognition has yet been documented."[165]
The term transsexual was introduced to English in 1949 by David Oliver Cauldwell,[note 2] and popularized by Harry Benjamin in 1966, around the same time transgender was coined and began to be popularized.[4] Since the 1990s, transsexual has generally been used to describe the subset of transgender people[4][36][37] who desire to transition permanently to the gender with which they identify and who seek medical assistance (for example, sex reassignment surgery) with this. However, the concerns of the two groups are sometimes different; for example, transsexual men and women who can pay for medical treatments (or who have institutional coverage for their treatment) are likely to be concerned with medical privacy and establishing a durable legal status as their gender later in life.[citation needed]
On 17 December 2015, the Congress of Nayarit approved a bill legalizing same-sex marriage.[293] In January 2016, the Mexican Supreme Court declared Jalisco's Civil Code unconstitutional for limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples, effectively legalizing same-sex marriage in the state.[294] On 10 May 2016, the Congress of Campeche passed a same-sex marriage bill.[295] On 18 May 2016, both Michoacán and Morelos passed bills allowing for same-sex marriage to be legal.[296][297] On 25 May 2016, a bill to legalize same-sex marriage in Colima was approved by the state Congress.[298] In July and August 2017, respectively, the Mexican Supreme Court invalidated same-sex marriage bans in the states of Chiapas and Puebla.[299][300] In November 2017, the State Government of Baja California decided to stop enforcing its same-sex marriage ban.
Interestingly—and perhaps as a reflection of tensions between the marriage-for-procreation and marriage-for-community-good positions discussed above—many European countries initially prevented same-sex couples from adoption and artificial insemination; by 2007, however, most of these restrictions had been removed. Outside Europe, some jurisdictions also adopted some form of same-sex partnership rights; Israel recognized common-law same-sex marriage in the mid-1990s (the Israeli Supreme Court further ruled in 2006 that same-sex marriages performed abroad should be recognized), and same-sex civil unions went into effect in New Zealand (2005) and in parts of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, and Mexico in the early 21st century. In 2007 Uruguay became the first Latin American country to legalize same-sex civil unions nationwide; the legislation became effective the following year.
The gay pride flag is also known as the rainbow flag. It is a symbol of social movements and pride of LGBT(Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) community. The rainbow flag was first originated in the Bay Area of San Francisco and now it has gained immense popularity all across the globe. It is often used as an emblem of gay pride and equality during LGBT movements throughout the world.
However, an unequal age of consent was established (21 for gay men and 16 for heterosexuals) with the law remaining silent about lesbianism. LGBT rights groups lobbied the Legislative Council to equalise the age of consent law, but were told that the legal inequality was necessary to protect youth and preserve tradition.[by whom?] A lawsuit was initiated to challenge the unequal age of consent in court.[2][3]
The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was enacted in 1996. DOMA's Section 2 says that no state needs to recognize the legal validity of a same-sex relationship even if recognized as marriage by another state. It purports to relieve a state of its reciprocal obligation to honor the laws of other states as required by the Constitution's full faith and credit clause.[16] Even before DOMA, however, states sometimes refused to recognize a marriage from another jurisdiction if it was counter to its "strongly held public policies".[17] Most lawsuits that seek to require a state to recognize a marriage established in another jurisdiction argue on the basis of equal protection and due process, not the full faith and credit clause.[a]
On July 25, 2014 Miami-Dade County Circuit Court Judge Sarah Zabel ruled Florida's gay marriage ban unconstitutional and stated that the ban "serves only to hurt, to discriminate, to deprive same-sex couples and their families of equal dignity, to label and treat them as second-class citizens, and to deem them unworthy of participation in one of the fundamental institutions of our society." [105] Christine Gregoire, former Washington governor, said in Jan. 2012: "Throughout our history, we have fought discrimination. We have joined together to recognize equality for racial minorities, women, people with disabilities, immigrants... [Legalizing gay marriage] is the right thing to do and it is time." [139] US Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Richard Posner, in overturning same-sex marriage bans in Wisconsin and Indiana in Sep. 2014, wrote that the bans "discriminate against a minority defined by an immutable characteristic." [40] As well as discrimination based on sexual orientation, gay marriage bans discriminate based on one's sex. As explained by David S. Cohen, JD, Associate Professor at the Drexel University School of Law, "Imagine three people—Nancy, Bill, and Tom... Nancy, a woman, can marry Tom, but Bill, a man, cannot... Nancy can do something (marry Tom) that Bill cannot, simply because Nancy is a woman and Bill is a man." [122]
In Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture of certain tribes until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as wasteful and celebrated homosexuality instead. They believed that in sharing semen, they are sharing their life force, yet women simply wasted this force any time they didn't get pregnant after sex. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.[56]
There are quite a number of reasons for the iconic status of the gay pride rainbow flag. Firstly, Rainbow is being used as a symbol of hope throughout the history. It was found in the earliest recorded history of Egypt, China, and Native American regions. Rainbow is described in the Hebrew scripture - The Book of Genesis as a proof of treaty between the God and living creatures on this planet. So, it is now uncommon to see the rainbow as a symbol for hope and peace. The gay communities were always looking for a symbol which represents their movements and pride. Gilbert Baker, an openly gay man, and an artist had always believed that flag is the powerful symbols which represent equality and pride. When Harvey Milk, the first openly gay elected official of USA urged Gilbert Baker to design a symbol for the gay rights movements, Baker has come up with an idea of the iconic Rainbow flag.
Legalizing gay marriage often leads to an end to domestic partnership benefits for gay and straight couples, which disadvantages couples who choose not to get married. Maryland ended health insurance benefits for new domestic partnerships after same-sex marriage became legal in the state in 2013. [124] [135] The state of Washington automatically converted domestic partnerships to marriages when they legalized gay marriage in 2012, providing no option to retain domestic partnerships or civil unions unless one partner is at least 62 years old. [134] [123] The US Defense Department announced in Aug. 2013 that it would grant health insurance and other benefits to same-sex married partners of US troops, but that domestic partners would no longer be granted the same benefits. [125] The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the US Department of Labor recognized same-sex married couples for the purpose of granting tax, retirement, and health insurance benefits after the US Supreme Court declared part of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional in 2013, but they did not include domestic partnerships or civil unions. [126]
On 10 December 2014, a group of senators from various parties, joined LGBT rights group MOVILH (Homosexual Movement of Integration and Liberation) in presenting a bill to allow same-sex marriage and adoption to Congress. MOVILH had been in talks with the Chilean Government to seek an amiable solution to the pending marriage lawsuit brought against the state before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.[372] On 17 February 2015, lawyers representing the Government and MOVILH met to discuss an amicable solution to the same-sex marriage lawsuit. The Government announced that they would drop their opposition to same-sex marriage. A formal agreement between the two parties and the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights was signed in April 2015.[373] The Chilean Government pledged to legalise same-sex marriage.
The governments of Costa Rica and Panama have announced that they will fully implement the IACHR ruling.[154][155] Additionally, on 11 January, the president of the Supreme Court of Peru and chairman of the country's judiciary, Duberlí Rodríguez, stated that Peru should abide by the decision.[156] On 29 January 2018, Housing Minister Carlos Bruce estimated that same-sex marriage will be allowed in Peru within two years, and several former Supreme Court judges and lawmakers, notably Indira Huilca, stated that same-sex marriage will soon be legal in Peru, regardless.[157][158] The Peruvian Government, however, has yet to issue a formal decision on the matter.
On June 26, 2015, the US Supreme Court ruled that gay marriage is a right protected by the US Constitution in all 50 states. Prior to their decision, same-sex marriage was already legal in 37 states and Washington DC, but was banned in the remaining 13. US public opinion had shifted significantly over the years, from 27% approval of gay marriage in 1996 to 55% in 2015, the year it became legal throughout the United States, to 61% in 2019.

+ UN decl. sign.[58] Cohabitation agreement since 2016[460] / Marriage performed abroad recognized since 2016[461] / Stepchild adoption since 2016; couples where both partners are infertile may also jointly adopt non-biological children since 2016 [citation needed] Bans all anti-gay discrimination[64] Gender reassignment legal; surgery not required[394]
Hirschfeld created a ten-point scale to measure the strength of sexual desire, with the direction of desire being represented by the letters A (for heterosexuality), B (for homosexuality), and A + B (for bisexuality). On this scale, someone who was A3, B9 would be weakly attracted to the opposite sex and very strongly attracted to the same sex, an A0, B0 would be asexual, and an A10, B10 would be very attracted to both sexes. LeVay compares Hirschfeld's scale to that developed by Kinsey decades later.[48]
As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host in 2019 the largest international celebration of LGBT pride in history, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride,[7] to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and shall include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 - WorldPride NYC 2019 events that will be open to all. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programming to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world.[8]
Since 1888 the US Supreme Court has declared 14 times that marriage is a fundamental right for all, according to the American Foundation for Equal Rights. [3] Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees "men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion... the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution." [103] Amnesty International states that "this non-discrimination principle has been interpreted by UN treaty bodies and numerous inter-governmental human rights bodies as prohibiting discrimination based on gender or sexual orientation. Non-discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation has therefore become an internationally recognized principle." [104]
Caspar v. Snyder (Michigan). On January 15, 2015, U.S. District Judge Mark A. Goldsmith ruled that the state must recognize the validity of "window marriages" established on March 21 and 22, 2014, before the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals stayed a district court ruling in DeBoer v. Snyder that found Michigan's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional, despite the fact that DeBoer was later reversed.[179] The state chose not to appeal.[180]

"Homosexual" and "heterosexual" were thus not categories of Roman sexuality, and no words exist in Latin that would precisely translate these concepts.[35] A male citizen who willingly performed oral sex or received anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men, who were presumably "homosexual" in the modern sense.[36] In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians (populares) such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.[37]


On November 18, 2003, the Massachusetts Supreme Court became the first to rule that the state’s ban on same sex marriage was unconstitutional. Once this decision in the case of Good ridge v Department of Public Health was handed down, the state of Massachusetts began issuing marriage licenses to same sex couples. This landmark ruling by a state supreme court was the result of a lawsuit filed in 2001 by a group called the Gay & Lesbian Advocates and Defenders (“GLAD”) on behalf of seven same sex couples, each of which were established, long term relationships. Four of these couples were raising a total of five children.
Common lesbian-feminist critiques leveled at bisexuality were that bisexuality was anti-feminist, that bisexuality was a form of false consciousness, and that bisexual women who pursue relationships with men were "deluded and desperate." Tensions between bisexual feminists and lesbian feminists have eased since the 1990s, as bisexual women have become more accepted in the feminist community,[92] but some lesbian feminists such as Julie Bindel are still critical of bisexuality. Bindel has described female bisexuality as a "fashionable trend" being promoted due to "sexual hedonism" and broached the question of whether bisexuality even exists.[93] She has also made tongue-in-cheek comparisons of bisexuals to cat fanciers and devil worshippers.[94] Sheila Jeffreys writes in The Lesbian Heresy that while many feminists are comfortable working alongside gay men, they are uncomfortable interacting with bisexual men. Jeffreys states that while gay men are unlikely to sexually harass women, bisexual men are just as likely to be bothersome to women as heterosexual men.[95]
The existence of religious pluralities within a country seems to have had a less determinate effect on the outcome of same-sex marriage debates. In some such countries, including the United States, consensus on this issue was difficult to reach. On the other hand, the Netherlands—the first country to grant equal marriage rights to same-sex couples (2001)—was religiously diverse, as was Canada, which did so in 2005.

As a British colony, Hong Kong's criminal laws against male homosexual acts were initially a reflection of British law, with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was a public debate about whether or not to reform the law in line with human rights principles. As a result, in 1991 the Legislative Council agreed to decriminalise private, adult, non-commercial, and consensual homosexual relations.
According to the federal government's Government Accountability Office (GAO) in 2004, more than 1,138 rights and protections are conferred to U.S. citizens upon marriage by the federal government; areas affected include Social Security benefits, veterans' benefits, health insurance, Medicaid, hospital visitation, estate taxes, retirement savings, pensions, family leave, and immigration law.[14]
Some of the opponents of same-sex marriage are religious groups such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Catholic Church, and the Southern Baptist Convention, all of which desire for marriage to remain restricted to opposite-sex marriages.[97] However, there are faith-based supporters of LGBT equality within every faith group and there are LGBT people of faith within every faith group.[98]
The first Italian event specifically associated with international celebrations of Gay Pride was the sixth congress of Fuori! held in Turin in late June 1978 and included a week of films on gay subjects.[77]:103 Episodes of violence against homosexuals were frequent in Italy, such as in the summer of 1979 when two young gay men were killed in Livorno. In Pisa in November of that year, the Orfeo Collective [it] organized the first march against anti-gay violence. Around 500 gay and lesbian participants attended, and this remained the largest gathering of the kind until 1994.[77]:122–124
Despite common misconceptions, bisexuality does not require that a person be attracted equally to both sexes. In fact, people who have a distinct but not exclusive preference for one sex over the other can and often do identify as bisexual. A recent study by researchers Gerulf Rieger, Meredith L. Chivers, and J. Michael Bailey,[20] which attracted media attention in 2005, purported to find that bisexuality is extremely rare, and perhaps nonexistent, in men. This was based on results of controversial penile plethysmograph testing when viewing pornographic material involving only men and pornography involving only women. Critics state that this study works from the assumption that a person is only truly bisexual if he or she exhibits virtually equal arousal responses to both opposite-sex and same-sex stimuli, and have consequently dismissed the self-identification of people whose arousal patterns showed even a mild preference for one sex. Some researchers say that the technique used in the study to measure genital arousal is too crude to capture the richness (erotic sensations, affection, admiration) that constitutes sexual attraction.[10] The study, and The New York Times article which reported it, were subsequently criticized as flawed and biphobic.[21][22][23] FAIR also criticised the study [24].
Distinctions between the terms transgender and transsexual are commonly based on distinctions between gender (psychological, social) and sex (physical).[38][39] Hence, transsexuality may be said to deal more with physical aspects of one's sex, while transgender considerations deal more with one's psychological gender disposition or predisposition, as well as the related social expectations that may accompany a given gender role.[40] Many transgender people prefer the designation transgender and reject transsexual.[5][41][42] For example, Christine Jorgensen publicly rejected transsexual in 1979, and instead identified herself in newsprint as trans-gender, saying, "gender doesn't have to do with bed partners, it has to do with identity."[43][44] This refers to the concern that transsexual implies something to do with sexuality, when it is actually about gender identity.[45][note 3] Some transsexual people, however, object to being included in the transgender umbrella.[46][47][48][49] The definitions of both terms have historically been variable.[citation needed]

Skepticism about the existence of people attracted to both men and women has come from heterosexuals as well as gays and lesbians. Even within the scientific community there has been debate about the existence and meaning of bisexuality. No one seems to argue with the reality that some people have sex with both men and women. The skepticism has centered on if that behavior is motivated by a strong sexual attraction to both sexes.
In 2010, Minister of Justice Tuija Brax said her Ministry was preparing to amend the Marriage Act to allow same-sex marriage by 2012.[241] On 27 February 2013, the bill was rejected by the Legal Affairs Committee of the Finnish Parliament on a vote of 9–8. A citizens' initiative was launched to put the issue before the Parliament of Finland.[242] The campaign collected 166,000 signatures and the initiative was presented to the Parliament in December 2013.[243] After being rejected by the Legal Affairs Committee twice,[244] it faced the first vote in full session on 28 November 2014,[245] which passed the bill 105–92. The bill passed the second and final vote by 101–90 on 12 December 2014,[246] and was signed by the President on 20 February 2015.[243][247][248]
Transsexuals are people who transition from one sex to another. A person born as a male can become recognizably female through the use of hormones and/or surgical procedures; and a person born as a female can become recognizably male. That said, transsexuals are unable to change their genetics and cannot acquire the reproductive abilities of the sex to which they transition. Sex is assigned at birth and refers to a person’s biological status as male or female. In other words, sex refers exclusively to the biological features: chromosomes, the balance of hormones, and internal and external anatomy. Each of us is born as either male or female, with rare exceptions of those born intersex who may display characteristics of both sexes at birth.
However, an unequal age of consent was established (21 for gay men and 16 for heterosexuals) with the law remaining silent about lesbianism. LGBT rights groups lobbied the Legislative Council to equalise the age of consent law, but were told that the legal inequality was necessary to protect youth and preserve tradition.[by whom?] A lawsuit was initiated to challenge the unequal age of consent in court.[2][3]
In contrast, the acceptance of same-sex partnerships was particularly apparent in northern Europe and in countries with cultural ties to that region. In 1989 Denmark became the first country to establish registered partnerships—an attenuated version of marriage—for same-sex couples. Soon thereafter similar laws, generally using specific vocabulary (e.g., civil union, civil partnership, domestic partnership, registered partnership) to differentiate same-sex unions from heterosexual marriages, went into effect in Norway (1993), Sweden (1995), Iceland (1996), the Netherlands (1998), and elsewhere in Europe, including the United Kingdom (2005) and Ireland (2011).
Browse sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) profiles of countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe & Central Asia, the Middle East & North Africa, and the United States. Profiles are primarily taken from sections of the Human Rights Watch 2019 World Report that relate to the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people. The report, released in January 2019, documented events of 2018. 
So it is very important that the Trans Community understand that the term "Transgendered", while not perfect, is the term most people within and outside of our Community understands and identifies with. How you identify personally is another thing all together. So, if there are "Transsexuals" who get upset that they are included under the umbrella term "Transgendered", they either need to come up with a term that better identifies EVERYONE in the Trans Community or just get over it. I'm beginning to think they just don't want to be under our umbrella when it rains even though there is no other, but they still don't want to get wet. :-)
The Immigration Department appealed the ruling to the Court of Final Appeal. The court handed down its ruling on 4 July 2018, finding in favour of the plaintiff and mandating immigration authorities to grant same-sex partners spousal visas that were previously only available only to heterosexual couples.[26] The panel of judges, led by Chief Justice Geoffrey Ma Tao-li, held that the “policy [of not granting a visa] is counterproductive and plainly not rationally connected to advancing [any] ‘talent’ aim" and rejected the immigration director’s argument that civil union partnerships differed from marriage, saying it was based on a “shaky foundation [and]...hardly satisfactory”.[26] The government stated it respected the court's ruling and would study it in detail.[26]
While there is no doubt that the LGBTI movement has made significant progress, there is still work to do. Amnesty helps activists around the world by producing resources on various issues that affect LGBTI people, such as an advocacy toolkit that can be used to combat discrimination in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Body Politics series aimed at increasing awareness around the criminalization of sexuality and reproduction.
In 1995, Jill Sobule sang about bi-curiosity in her song "I Kissed a Girl", with a video that alternated images of Sobule and a boyfriend along with images of her with a girlfriend. Another song with the same name by Katy Perry also hints at the same theme. Some activists suggest the song merely reinforces the stereotype of bisexuals experimenting and of bisexuality not being a real sexual preference. Lady Gaga has also stated that she is bisexual,[114] and has acknowledged that her song "Poker Face" is about fantasizing about a woman while being with a man.[115]

On July 25, 2014 Miami-Dade County Circuit Court Judge Sarah Zabel ruled Florida's gay marriage ban unconstitutional and stated that the ban "serves only to hurt, to discriminate, to deprive same-sex couples and their families of equal dignity, to label and treat them as second-class citizens, and to deem them unworthy of participation in one of the fundamental institutions of our society." [105] Christine Gregoire, former Washington governor, said in Jan. 2012: "Throughout our history, we have fought discrimination. We have joined together to recognize equality for racial minorities, women, people with disabilities, immigrants... [Legalizing gay marriage] is the right thing to do and it is time." [139] US Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Richard Posner, in overturning same-sex marriage bans in Wisconsin and Indiana in Sep. 2014, wrote that the bans "discriminate against a minority defined by an immutable characteristic." [40] As well as discrimination based on sexual orientation, gay marriage bans discriminate based on one's sex. As explained by David S. Cohen, JD, Associate Professor at the Drexel University School of Law, "Imagine three people—Nancy, Bill, and Tom... Nancy, a woman, can marry Tom, but Bill, a man, cannot... Nancy can do something (marry Tom) that Bill cannot, simply because Nancy is a woman and Bill is a man." [122]
Cook County, Illinois (21 February) England and Wales (13 March) Oregon (19 May) Pennsylvania (20 May) Illinois [statewide] (1 June) Akrotiri and Dhekelia (3 June) British Indian Ocean Territory (3 June) Puyallup Tribe of Indians (9 July) Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa (16 July) Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians (10 August) Coahuila (17 September) Oklahoma (6 October) Virginia (6 October) Utah (6 October) Indiana (6 October) Wisconsin (6 October) Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa (6 October) Colorado (7 October) West Virginia (9 October) Nevada (9 October) Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes (9 October) North Carolina (10 October) Alaska (12 October) Idaho (15 October) Arizona (17 October) Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation (17 October) Pascua Yaqui Tribe (17 October) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (17 October) San Carlos Apache Tribe (17 October) Yavapai-Apache Nation (17 October) Wyoming (21 October) St. Louis, Missouri (5 November) St. Louis County, Missouri (6 November) Jackson County, Missouri (7 November) Douglas County, Kansas (12 November) Sedgwick County, Kansas (12 November) Eastern Shoshone Tribe (14 November) Northern Arapaho Tribe (14 November) Montana (19 November) Blackfeet Nation (19 November) South Carolina (20 November) Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (13 December) Scotland (16 December) South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
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