Marriage is an outmoded, oppressive institution that should be weakened, not expanded. LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) activist collective Against Equality states that "Gay marriage apes hetero privilege... [and] increases economic inequality by perpetuating a system which deems married beings more worthy of the basics like health care and economic rights." [84] The leaders of the Gay Liberation Front in New York said in July 1969, "We expose the institution of marriage as one of the most insidious and basic sustainers of the system. The family is the microcosm of oppression." [16] Self-described queer activist Anders Zanichkowsky stated in June 2013 that the campaign for gay marriage "intentionally and maliciously erases and excludes so many queer people and cultures, particularly trans and gender non-conforming people, poor queer people, and queer people in non-traditional families... marriage thinks non-married people are deviant and not truly deserving of civil rights." [127]
While anyone may wear clothes associated with a different sex, the term cross-dresser is typically used to refer to men who occasionally wear clothes, makeup, and accessories culturally associated with women. Those men typically identify as heterosexual. This activity is a form of gender expression and not done for entertainment purposes. Cross-dressers do not wish to permanently change their sex or live full-time as women. Replaces the term "transvestite".
In September 2016, President Bachelet stated before a United Nations General Assembly panel that the Chilean Government would submit a same-sex marriage bill to Congress in the first half of 2017.[376] A same-sex marriage bill was submitted in September 2017.[377] Parliament began discussing the bill on 27 November 2017,[378] but it failed to pass before March 2018, when a new Government was inaugurated.
Other Southeastern Brazilian parades are held in Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro), Campinas (São Paulo), Vitória (capital of Espírito Santo), and Belo Horizonte and Uberaba (Minas Gerais). Southern Brazilian parades take place in Curitiba, Florianópolis, Porto Alegre and Pelotas, and Center-Western ones happen in Campo Grande, Cuiabá, Goiânia and Brasília. Across Northeastern Brazil, they are present in all capitals, namely, in Salvador, Aracaju, Maceió, Recife, João Pessoa, Natal, Fortaleza, Teresina and São Luís, and also in Ceará's hinterland major urban center, Juazeiro do Norte. Northern Brazilian parades are those from Belém, Macapá, Boa Vista and Manaus.
Skepticism about the existence of people attracted to both men and women has come from heterosexuals as well as gays and lesbians. Even within the scientific community there has been debate about the existence and meaning of bisexuality. No one seems to argue with the reality that some people have sex with both men and women. The skepticism has centered on if that behavior is motivated by a strong sexual attraction to both sexes.

In June 2004 LGBT activists sailed to Australia's uninhabited Coral Sea Islands Territory and raised the rainbow flag, proclaiming the territory independent of Australia, calling it the Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands in protest to the Australian government's refusal to recognise same-sex marriages. The rainbow flag is the official flag of the kingdom.[24]
Among the ancient Middle Eastern Akkadian people, a salzikrum was a person who appeared biologically female but had distinct male traits. Salzikrum is a compound word meaning male daughter. According to the Code of Hammurabi, salzikrūm had inheritance rights like that of priestesses; they inherited from their fathers, unlike regular daughters. A salzikrum's father could also stipulate that she inherit a certain amount.[162] In Ancient Rome, the Gallae were castrated[163] followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and can be regarded as transgender in today's terms.[164][165]
In Scientific American Mind, the scientist Emily V. Driscoll stated that homosexual and bisexual behavior is quite common in several species and that it fosters bonding: "The more homosexuality, the more peaceful the species". The article also stated: "Unlike most humans, however, individual animals generally cannot be classified as gay or straight: an animal that engages in a same-sex flirtation or partnership does not necessarily shun heterosexual encounters. Rather, many species seem to have ingrained homosexual tendencies that are a regular part of their society. That is, there are probably no strictly gay critters, just bisexual ones. Animals don't do sexual identity. They just do sex."[59]
Definition An umbrella term that refers to those with identities that cross over, move between, or otherwise challenge the socially constructed border between the genders. While this can include medical or social transition, it may not. A term referring to a person who does not identify with the sex they were assigned at birth and wishes, whether successful or not, to realign their gender and their sex through use of medical intervention.
Legal recognition of same-sex marriages in South Africa came about as a result of the Constitutional Court's decision in the case of Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie. The court ruled on 1 December 2005 that the existing marriage laws violated the equality clause of the Bill of Rights because they discriminated on the basis of sexual orientation. The court gave Parliament one year to rectify the inequality.
Also in 2003, the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that the denial of marriage licenses to same-sex couples violated the state constitution; the court gave the state six months to comply with its order to remedy the situation. The state soon began to issue marriage licenses for same-sex couples, but these were quickly challenged and their legal status over the long term remained uncertain. Officials in some smaller jurisdictions, notably San Francisco, joined the controversy in early 2004 by issuing marriage licenses in defiance of local prohibitions; these licenses were later found to be invalid. Subsequently, several other states and Washington, D.C., either established same-sex civil unions or adopted jurisdictionwide policies that accorded some spousal rights to same-sex couples.
Marriage is not only for procreation, otherwise infertile couples or couples not wishing to have children would be prevented from marrying. Ability or desire to create offspring has never been a qualification for marriage. From 1970 through 2012 roughly 30% of all US households were married couples without children, and in 2012, married couples without children outnumbered married couples with children by 9%. [96] 6% of married women aged 15-44 are infertile, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [97] In a 2010 Pew Research Center survey, both married and unmarried people rated love, commitment, and companionship higher than having children as "very important" reasons to get married, and only 44% of unmarried people and 59% of married people rated having children as a very important reason. [42] Several US presidents never had their own biological children, including George Washington, often referred to as "the Father of Our Country." [9] [12] As US Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan noted, a marriage license would be granted to a couple in which the man and woman are both over the age of 55, even though "there are not a lot of children coming out of that marriage." [88]
All states that allow same-sex marriage also allow the joint adoption of children by people of the same sex, with the exceptions of Jalisco, Nayarit and Quintana Roo in Mexico. In addition, Andorra and Israel as well as several subnational jurisdictions which do not recognize same-sex marriage nonetheless permit joint adoption by unmarried same-sex couples: Querétaro and Veracruz in Mexico as well as Northern Ireland and Jersey in the United Kingdom. Some additional states allow stepchild adoption by those who are in a same-sex relationship but are unmarried: Croatia, Estonia, Italy (on a case-by-case basis), Slovenia and Switzerland.[514]
The court’s ruling on Hollingsworth v Perry was also a victory for those believing in same sex marriages. This case dates back to 2009 when the American Foundation for Equal Rights filed a lawsuit with the U.S. District Court to challenge California’s Proposition 8, which denied same sex couples the right to marry. In 2010, a judge ruled Proposition 8 to be unconstitutional, stating it discriminated against same sex couples. Proponents of the proposition appealed the decision and, in 2012, the Court of Appeals affirmed the District Court’s ruling. In 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the case and struck down the proposition, restoring the freedom to marry to same sex couples.
However A Practical Handbook of Psychiatry (1974) references "transgender surgery" noting, "The transvestite rarely seeks transgender surgery, since the core of his perversion is an attempt to realize the fantasy of a phallic woman."(Novello, Joseph R. (1974). A Practical Handbook of Psychiatry. University of Michigan, digitized August 2008: C. C. Thomas. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-398-02868-8. Archived from the original on 2015-09-19.)

Biphobia describes a fear or condemnation of bisexuality, usually based in a belief that only heterosexuality and homosexuality are genuine orientations and appropriate lifestyles. Bisexual persons may also be the target of homophobia from those who consider only heterosexuality appropriate. The reverse can also apply in that bisexual persons may be targets of heterophobia or discrimination by some homosexuals.
Notable and varying portrayals of bisexuality can be found in mainstream movies such as Black Swan (2010), Frida (2002), Showgirls (1995), The Pillow Book (1996), Alexander (2004), The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975), Henry & June (1990), Chasing Amy (1997), Velvet Goldmine (1998), Kissing Jessica Stein (2001), The Fourth Man (1993), Basic Instinct (1992), Mulholland Drive (2001), Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971), Something for Everyone (1970), The Rules of Attraction (2002), Brokeback Mountain (2005), and Call Me by Your Name (2017).

The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was enacted in 1996. DOMA's Section 2 says that no state needs to recognize the legal validity of a same-sex relationship even if recognized as marriage by another state. It purports to relieve a state of its reciprocal obligation to honor the laws of other states as required by the Constitution's full faith and credit clause.[16] Even before DOMA, however, states sometimes refused to recognize a marriage from another jurisdiction if it was counter to its "strongly held public policies".[17] Most lawsuits that seek to require a state to recognize a marriage established in another jurisdiction argue on the basis of equal protection and due process, not the full faith and credit clause.[a]

Early in 2008 the Supreme Courts of two states—California and Connecticut—struck down state laws limiting marriage to the union between a man and a woman. Later in 2008 the voters in California passed a referendum, Proposition 8, that defined marriage as a union between a man and a woman. Proposition 8 subsequently was ruled unconstitutional in federal district court in August 2010 on the grounds that the prohibition of same-sex marriage violated the due process and equal protection clauses. Although advocates of the referendum quickly sought to contest the decision, it was upheld by a federal appeals court in February 2012. Referenda similar to California’s Proposition 8 were approved in Arizona and Florida in 2008 and in North Carolina in 2012.
Many homosexual and bisexual individuals have a problem with the use of the pink triangle symbol as it was the symbol that Hitler's regime used to tag homosexuals (similar to the yellow Star of David that is constituted of two opposed, overlapping triangles). Because pink triangles were used in the persecution of homosexuals in the Nazi regime, a double moon symbol was devised specifically to avoid the use of triangles.[41] This bisexual symbol is a double moon that is formed when the sex-specific attributes of the astrological symbol of Mars & Venus (representing heterosexual union) are reduced to the two circles open on both ends, thus symbolizing that bisexuals are open to either-sex unions. The color of the bisexual double moon symbol varies. The symbol is most often displayed with rainbow colors, signifying that bisexuals belong to the gay community. It also may appear with the pink-purple-blue colors of the bisexual pride flag. The double moon symbol is common in Germany and surrounding countries.[41]
On 25 June 2015, following the Supreme Court's ruling striking down district same-sex marriage bans, the Civil Registry of Guerrero announced that they had planned a collective same-sex marriage ceremony for 10 July 2015 and indicated that there would have to be a change to the law to allow gender-neutral marriage, passed through the state Legislature before the official commencement.[288] The registry announced more details of their plan, advising that only select registration offices in the state would be able to participate in the collective marriage event.[289] The state Governor instructed civil agencies to approve same-sex marriage licenses. On 10 July 2015, 20 same-sex couples were married by Governor Rogelio Ortega in Acapulco.[290] On 13 January 2016, the head of the Civil Registry of Acapulco announced that all marriages that took place on 10 July 2015 by the Governor and his wife were void and not legal as same-sex marriage is not legal in Guerrero, unless couples are granted an amparo beforehand.[291] On 13 February 2016, however, the head of Guerrero's State Civil Registry department announced that same-sex couples could marry in any of the jurisdictions that want to marry the couples and criticised Acapulco's Civil Registry and other civil registries throughout the state for not allowing these kinds of weddings.[292] By March 2017, every state municipality in Guerrero had stopped issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.
Transgender and transsexual are commonly confused terms that both refer to gender identity. Transgender is a broader, more inclusive category that includes all individuals who do not identify with the gender that corresponds to the sex they were assigned at birth. Transsexual is a more narrow category that includes individuals who desire to physically transition to the gender with which they identify. All transsexual persons are transgender. However, not all transgender persons are transsexual. Transgender women are sometimes referred to as trans women. Some may also be known as male-to-female transsexuals, MTFs, transsexual women, transgirls, or tgirls. The term "transsexual" originated as a medical term and is sometimes considered pejorative. It is always best to ask a person which term is preferred.
A same-sex marriage bill is pending in Parliament after the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland,[455] introduced a constitutional initiative to legalize same-sex marriage in December 2013, in opposition to a Christian Democrat initiative banning same-sex marriage. The Committee for Legal Affairs of the National Council approved the Green Liberal initiative by 12-9 and 1 abstention on 20 February 2015.[456] On 1 September 2015, the upper house's Legal Affairs Committee voted 7 to 5 to proceed with the initiative.[457] The National Council's Legal Affairs Committee can now draft an act.
On 17 October 2016, a married same-sex couple filed an action of unconstitutionality seeking to recognise same-sex marriages performed abroad.[432] In early November, the case was admitted to the Supreme Court.[433] A challenge seeking to fully legalize same-sex marriage in Panama was introduced before the Supreme Court in March 2017.[434] The Supreme Court heard arguments on both cases in summer 2017.[435]
Same-sex marriages are licensed in and recognized by all U.S. states and District of Columbia, as well as all U.S. territories except American Samoa.[40] On July 3, 2015, the Attorney General for American Samoa stated "we are reviewing the opinion [Obergefell v. Hodges] and its potential applicability to American Samoa, and will provide comment when it is completed."[41] Currently same-sex marriages are neither licensed nor recognized there. On January 6, 2016, Alabama's Chief Justice, Roy Moore, issued a ruling forbidding state officials from issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.[42] The ruling had no effect as all Alabama counties continued either issuing marriage licenses to all couples or not issue licenses at all. In May 2016 Moore was charged with ethics violations by the state Judicial Inquiry Commission for the ruling,[43] subsequently being suspended from the bench for the remainder of his term on September 30 of that year.[44]
By embracing LGBTI people and understanding their identities, we can learn how to remove many of the limitations imposed by gender stereotypes. These stereotypes are damaging across society, defining and limiting how people are expected to live their lives. Removing them sets everyone free to achieve their full potential, without discriminatory social constraints. 
The oldest pride parade in Poland, the Warsaw Pride, has been organized since 2001. In 2005, the parade was forbidden by local authorities (including then-Mayor Lech Kaczyński) but occurred nevertheless. The ban was later declared a violation of the European Convention on Human Rights (Bączkowski and Others v. Poland). In 2008, more than 1,800 people joined the march. In 2010 EuroPride took place in Warsaw with approximately 8,000 participants. The last parade in Warsaw, in 2017, drew 50,000 people. Other Polish cities which host pride parades are Kraków, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, Toruń and Wrocław. In 2018 pride parade was organised for the first time in Lublin, Częstochowa, Rzeszów, Opole, Zielona Góra and Konin.
^ Jump up to: a b Reisner, Sari L; Conron, Kerith; Scout, Nfn; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Haneuse, Sebastien; Austin, S. Bryn (2014). "Comparing In-Person and Online Survey Respondents in the U.S. National Transgender Discrimination Survey: Implications for Transgender Health Research". LGBT Health. 1 (2): 98–106. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2013.0018. PMID 26789619. Transgender was defined broadly to cover those who transition from one gender to another as well as those who may not choose to socially, medically, or legally fully transition, including cross-dressers, people who consider themselves to be genderqueer, androgynous, and…
As of 26 May 2019, same-sex marriage is legally performed and recognized (nationwide or in some jurisdictions) in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico,[a] the Netherlands,[b] New Zealand,[c] Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom,[d] the United States,[e] and Uruguay. Same-sex marriage is also due to become legal in Costa Rica.[f][1] Israel recognizes same-sex marriages entered into abroad as full marriages. Estonia recognizes foreign same-sex marriages to some degree, and a ministerial decision decreed that Armenia shall as well, though as of February 2019 there had been no actual cases. Furthermore, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights has issued a ruling which is expected to facilitate recognition in several countries in the Americas.[g][2]
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