The Court said that governments "must recognise and guarantee all the rights that are derived from a family bond between people of the same sex". They also said that it was inadmissible and discriminatory for a separate legal provision to be established (such as civil unions) instead of same-sex marriage. The Court demanded that governments "guarantee access to all existing forms of domestic legal systems, including the right to marriage, in order to ensure the protection of all the rights of families formed by same-sex couples without discrimination". Recognising the difficulty in passing such laws in countries where there is strong opposition to same-sex marriage, it recommended that governments pass temporary decrees until new legislation is brought in.[153]
The 1950s and 1960s in the United States was an extremely repressive legal and social period for LGBT people. In this context American homophile organizations such as the Daughters of Bilitis and the Mattachine Society coordinated some of the earliest demonstrations of the modern LGBT rights movement. These two organizations in particular carried out pickets called "Annual Reminders" to inform and remind Americans that LGBT people did not receive basic civil rights protections. Annual Reminders began in 1965 and took place each July 4 at Independence Hall in Philadelphia.
1960年代性革命之前,社会上并没有专门指代非异性恋的中立词汇。最接近中立的词汇是1860年代出现的“第三性”,但这个词并没有在社会上得到广泛接受[12][13][14][15][16][17]。第一个广泛传播的词汇是“同性恋”,但是这个词在1950和1960年代被认为有贬义,所以一度被“同性爱”代替[18],1970年代被“gay”代替[12] 。随着女同性恋受到越来越多的关注,“gay”和“lesbian”的使用变得普遍[1]。女同性恋组织比利提斯的女儿在1970年代提出了女同性恋社群应该更注重哪个方向的争议——应该更关注于女权运动还是同性恋权益[19]。身兼女同性恋身份的女权主义者认为男女平等应优先考量,认为性别分工和男女气质被这个群体认为是父权的象征,不参与当时在酒吧流行的性别角色游戏,也回避男同性恋沙文主义;一些女同性恋的女权主义者不愿意和男同性恋者一起工作[20]。持本质主义观点的女同性恋认为自己生来即为同性恋,倾向于用“lesbian”这个词来形容自己的性倾向,并认为同性恋分离主义和女权主义者的愤怒观点不利于争取同性恋权益。这种态度迅速被双性恋和跨性别人士认可,并一起寻求更大社群的认同[1]。在石墙暴动后的一段时间,即1970和1980年代,男同性恋和女同性恋皆对双性恋和跨性别人士的接纳程度有所降低[21][22]。双性恋被认为是不敢出柜或不能自我认同的同性恋,而跨性别被认为其行为偏离了人们对性别的刻板印象[21]。每个社群都发展出了各自的自我认同,其中包括是否接受其他性别的族群以及如何与其他性别相处的问题,然而这些争论持续至今[22]。

The history of same-sex marriage in the United States dates from the early 1970s, when the first lawsuits seeking legal recognition of same-sex relationships brought the question of civil marriage rights and benefits for same-sex couples to public attention though they proved unsuccessful.[7] The subject became increasingly prominent in U.S. politics following the 1993 Hawaii Supreme Court decision in Baehr v. Miike that suggested the possibility that the state's prohibition might be unconstitutional. That decision was met by actions at both the federal and state level to restrict marriage to male-female couples, notably the enactment at the federal level of the Defense of Marriage Act.


LGBT是女同性戀者(Lesbian)、男同性戀者(Gay)、雙性戀者(Bisexual)與跨性別者(Transgender)的英文首字母縮略字。1990年代,由於「同性戀社群」一詞無法完整體現相關群體,「LGBT」一词便應運而生、並逐漸普及[1]。在現代用語中,「LGBT」一詞、除了狹義的指同性戀、雙性戀或跨性別族群,也可廣泛代表所有非異性戀者[1][2]。另外,也有在詞語後方加上字母「Q」,代表酷兒(Queer)和/或對其性別認同感到疑惑的人(Questioning),即是「LGBTQ」。LGBT現今已獲得了許多英語系國家中多數LGBT族群和LGBT媒體的認同及採用,成為一種非常主流的用法[3][4]。坊間有不少LGBT的資源中心,提供不少有關LGBT的中文文章,包括醫學、心理學、社會科學及法律的文章,是一個研究LGBT議題人士搜尋資料的地方。

The ACLU Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Project seeks to create a just society for all LGBT people regardless of race or income. Through litigation, lobbying, public education, and organizing, we work to build a country where our communities can live openly without discrimination and enjoy equal rights, personal autonomy, and freedom of expression and association.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.[1][2][3] Some transgender people who desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another identify as transsexual.[4][5] Transgender – often shortened as trans – is also an umbrella term: in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex (trans men and trans women), it may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine (people who are genderqueer or non-binary, including bigender, pangender, genderfluid, or agender).[2][6][7] Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or else conceptualize transgender people as a third gender.[8][9] Infrequently, the term transgender is defined very broadly to include cross-dressers,[10] regardless of their gender identity.
Scientific studies show that the financial, psychological, and physical well-being of gay people are enhanced by marriage, and that the children of same-sex parents benefit from being raised by married same-sex couples within a marital union that is recognized by law and supported by societal institutions.[5] Social science research indicates that the exclusion of homosexuals from marriage stigmatizes and invites public discrimination against them, with research also repudiating the notion that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon restricting marriage to heterosexuals.[6] Same-sex marriage can provide those in committed same-sex relationships with relevant government services and make financial demands on them comparable to that required of those in opposite-sex marriages, and also gives them legal protections such as inheritance and hospital visitation rights.[7]
Describes a person's enduring physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to another person. Gender identity and sexual orientation are not the same. Transgender people may be straight, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer. For example, a person who transitions from male to female and is attracted solely to men would typically identify as a straight woman. 
A study of nationwide data from across the United States from January 1999 to December 2015 revealed that the establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation, resulting in about 134,000 fewer children attempting suicide each year in the United States.
As a British colony, Hong Kong's criminal laws against male homosexual acts were initially a reflection of British law, with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was a public debate about whether or not to reform the law in line with human rights principles. As a result, in 1991 the Legislative Council agreed to decriminalise private, adult, non-commercial, and consensual homosexual relations.
West Virginia 1,850,326 October 9, 2014 October 9, 2014 Binding federal court precedent → Actions of state officials → Federal court decision Governor Earl Ray Tomblin and state Attorney General Patrick Morrisey, recognizing the precedent established by the Fourth Circuit ruling in Bostic v. Schaefer, dropped their defense of the state's same-sex marriage ban.[79] The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of West Virginia in McGee v. Cole overturned West Virginia's statutory ban on same-sex marriage on November 7, 2014.[80]
36 countries in Europe require a mental health diagnosis for legal gender recognition and 20 countries still require sterilisation.[98] In April 2017, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that requiring sterilisation for legal gender recognition violates human rights.[99] All Council of Europe Member States must bring their legislation and practice into line with this new legal principle.[citation needed]
The rainbow flag has found wide application on all manner of products. The rainbow flag colors are routinely used as a show of LGBT identity and solidarity. The rainbow colors have become so widely recognized as a symbol of LGBT pride and identity that they have effectively replaced most other LGBT symbols, including the Greek letter lambda and the pink triangle. One common item of jewelry is the pride necklace or freedom rings, consisting of six rings, one of each color, on a chain.[44][45] Other variants range from key chains to candles. In Montreal, the entrance to Beaudry metro station, which serves that city's Gay Village, was rebuilt in 1999 with rainbow-colored elements integrated into its design.[46][47]

Between December 2013 and August 2014, federal judges in 14 states overturned state bans of same-sex marriage. In all but two of those states, the rulings were stayed, although some of the states briefly performed same-sex marriages prior to their suspension. U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced that those marriages would be recognized by the federal government, and in February 2014 he introduced a Department of Justice policy to grant equal protection and treatment to all lawful marriages in the United States. In October the U.S. Supreme Court declined to review appeals of federal court decisions in five states, which effectively made same-sex marriage legal in those jurisdictions. As an indirect consequence, same-sex marriage was soon legalized by U.S. district courts in several additional states. By the end of 2014, the number of states where such marriages were legal had reached 35—more than twice as many as at the beginning of the year.
^ Erez Levon (January 2008). National Discord: Language, Sexuality and the Politics of Belonging in Israel. p. 45-46. This amendment to the penal code entailed a de jure decriminalization of sodomy since, in 1963, the Israeli Supreme Court had already issued a de facto decriminalization, ruling that the anti-sodomy law (which dated back to the British Mandate of Palestine; Mandatory Criminal Ordinance of 1936) could not be prosecuted (Yosef Ben-Ami vs. The Attorney General of Israel, 224/63).
A study of nationwide data from January 1999 to December 2015 revealed that the establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation, resulting in approximately 134,000 fewer children attempting suicide each year in the United States. The United States is the most populous country in the world to have established same-sex marriage nationwide.
Gay marriage is protected by the US Constitution's commitments to liberty and equality. The US Supreme Court ruled 7-2 in the 1974 case Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur that the "freedom of personal choice in matters of marriage and family life is one of the liberties protected by the Due Process Clause." US District Judge Vaughn Walker wrote on Aug. 4, 2010 that Prop. 8 in California banning gay marriage was "unconstitutional under both the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses." [41] The Due Process Clause in both the Fifth and 14th Amendments of the US Constitution states that no person shall be "deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." [111] The Equal Protection Clause in the 14th Amendment states that no state shall "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." [112]
The adjective transgender should never have an extraneous "-ed" tacked onto the end. An "-ed" suffix adds unnecessary length to the word and can cause tense confusion and grammatical errors. It also brings transgender into alignment with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer. You would not say that Elton John is "gayed" or Ellen DeGeneres is "lesbianed," therefore you would not say Chaz Bono is "transgendered."
One effort to quantify the population gave a "rough estimate" that 0.3 percent of adults in the US are transgender.[130][131] More recent studies released in 2016 estimate the proportion of Americans who identify as transgender at 0.5 to 0.6%. This would put the total number of transgender Americans at approximately 1.4 million adults (as of 2016).[132][133][134][135]
American Medical Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, National Association of Social Workers, American Psychoanalytic Association, American Academy of Family Physicians; et al. "Brief of [medical organizations] as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioners" (PDF). supremecourt.gov. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
In the Dutch Caribbean special municipalities of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, marriage is open to same-sex couples. A law enabling same-sex couples to marry in these municipalities passed and came into effect on 10 October 2012.[304] The Caribbean countries Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, forming the remainder of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, do not perform same-sex marriages, but must recognize those performed in the Netherlands proper.
Golinski v. Office of Personnel Management (2010–2013). Section 3 of the federal Defense of Marriage Act is found unconstitutional in U.S. district court, which determines that sexual orientation is a quasi-suspect classification requiring the court to apply intermediate scrutiny, that is, to determine whether Section 3 relates to an important government interest. On appeal the case is held in abeyance pending the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Windsor, which settles the issues raised in Golinski, the appeal of which to the Supreme Court is then denied.
^ Erez Levon (January 2008). National Discord: Language, Sexuality and the Politics of Belonging in Israel. p. 45-46. This amendment to the penal code entailed a de jure decriminalization of sodomy since, in 1963, the Israeli Supreme Court had already issued a de facto decriminalization, ruling that the anti-sodomy law (which dated back to the British Mandate of Palestine; Mandatory Criminal Ordinance of 1936) could not be prosecuted (Yosef Ben-Ami vs. The Attorney General of Israel, 224/63).
×