Krafft-Ebing was the first to suggest that bisexuality is the original state of human sexuality. Freud has famously summarized on the basis of clinical observations: "[W]e have come to know that all human beings are bisexual - - and that their libido is distributed between objects of both sexes, either in a manifest or a latent form." According to Freud, people remain bisexual all their lives in a repression to monosexuality of fantasy and behavior. This idea was taken up in the 1940s by the zoologist Alfred Kinsey who was the first to create a scale to measure the continuum of sexual orientation from hetero to homosexuality. Kinsey studied human sexuality and argued that people have the capability of being hetero or homosexual even if this trait does not present itself in the current circumstances.[27]

A reference to same-sex marriage (by the Egyptians and Canaanites) exists in the Talmud. The Book of Leviticus prohibited homosexual relations (Lev. 18:22, 20:13), and the Jewish sages provide the reason for this as being that the Hebrews were warned not to "follow the acts of the land of Egypt or the acts of the land of Canaan". The sages explicitly state: "what did [the Egyptians and Canaanites] do? A man would marry a man and a woman [marry] a woman."[122]
Many non-human animal species exhibit bisexual behavior.[10][11][12] Examples of mammals that display such behavior include the bonobo (formerly known as the pygmy chimpanzee), orca, and the bottlenose dolphin.[10][11][12][136] Examples of birds include some species of gulls and Humboldt penguins. Other examples of bisexual behavior occur among fish and flatworms.[136]
Religious institutions can decline to marry gay and lesbian couples if they wish, but they should not dictate marriage laws for society at large. As explained by People for the American Way, "As a legal matter, marriage is a civil institution... Marriage is also a religious institution, defined differently by different faiths and congregations. In America, the distinction can get blurry because states permit clergy to carry out both religious and civil marriage in a single ceremony. Religious Right leaders have exploited that confusion by claiming that granting same-sex couples equal access to civil marriage would somehow also redefine the religious institution of marriage... this is grounded in falsehood and deception." [132] Nancy Cott, PhD, testified in Perry v. Schwarzenegger that "[c]ivil law has always been supreme in defining and regulating marriage." [41]
There are quite a number of reasons for the iconic status of the gay pride rainbow flag. Firstly, Rainbow is being used as a symbol of hope throughout the history. It was found in the earliest recorded history of Egypt, China, and Native American regions. Rainbow is described in the Hebrew scripture - The Book of Genesis as a proof of treaty between the God and living creatures on this planet. So, it is now uncommon to see the rainbow as a symbol for hope and peace. The gay communities were always looking for a symbol which represents their movements and pride. Gilbert Baker, an openly gay man, and an artist had always believed that flag is the powerful symbols which represent equality and pride. When Harvey Milk, the first openly gay elected official of USA urged Gilbert Baker to design a symbol for the gay rights movements, Baker has come up with an idea of the iconic Rainbow flag.
The very first South-Eastern European Pride, called The Internationale Pride, was assumed to be a promotion of the human right to freedom of assembly in Croatia and some Eastern European states, where such rights of the LGBT population are not respected, and a support for organising the very first Prides in that communities. Out of all ex-Yugoslav states, at that time only Slovenia and Croatia had a tradition of organising Pride events, whereas the attempt to organize such an event in Belgrade, Serbia in 2001, ended in a bloody showdown between the police and the counter-protesters, with the participants heavily beaten up. This manifestation was held in Zagreb, Croatia from June 22–25, 2006 and brought together representatives of those Eastern European and Southeastern European countries where the sociopolitical climate is not ripe for the organization of Prides, or where such a manifestation is expressly forbidden by the authorities. From 13 countries that participated, only Poland, Slovenia, Croatia, Romania and Latvia have been organizing Prides. Slovakia also hosted the pride, but encountered many problems with Slovak extremists from Slovenska pospolitost (the pride did not cross the centre of the city). Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Macedonia, Albania and Lithuania have never had Prides before. There were also representatives from Kosovo, that participated apart from Serbia. It was the very first Pride organized jointly with other states and nations, which only ten years ago have been at war with each other. Weak cultural, political and social cooperation exists among these states, with an obvious lack of public encouragement for solidarity, which organizers hoped to initiate through that regional Pride event. The host and the initiator of The Internationale LGBT Pride was Zagreb Pride, which has been held since 2002.
There have also been significant developments in the United States where the Supreme Court recently gave two decisions which have had an impact on same-sex marriage. One of them cleared the way for same-sex marriage in California, the 12th state to recognise same-sex marriage, and the other struck down the Congress’ Defense of Marriage Act, which provided that in all federal rules and rulings, the word ‘marriage’ means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife. According to civil rights lawyer, Father Frank Brennan these decisions will have an impact beyond the United States.
Ray Blanchard developed a taxonomy of male-to-female transsexualism that proposes two distinct etiologies for androphilic and gynephilic individuals that has become highly controversial, supported by J. Michael Bailey, Anne Lawrence, James Cantor, Richard F. Docter and others, but opposed by Charles Allen Moser, Larry Nuttbrock, Julia Serano, and the World Professional Association for Transgender Health.
Browse sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) profiles of countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe & Central Asia, the Middle East & North Africa, and the United States. Profiles are primarily taken from sections of the Human Rights Watch 2019 World Report that relate to the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The report, released in January 2019, documented events of 2018.
In contrast to the procreative model of marriage, advocates of the legalization of same-sex marriage generally believed that committed partnerships involving sexual intimacy are valuable because they draw people together to a singular degree and in singular ways. In this view, such relationships are intrinsically worthy while also quite distinct from (though not incompatible with) activities associated with the bearing or raising of children. Sexual partnerships are one of a number of factors that bond adults together into stable household units. These households, in turn, form the foundation of a productive society—a society in which, albeit incidentally, children, elders, and others who may be relatively powerless are likely to be protected.
In some cases, animals will choose to engage in sexual activity with different sexes at different times in their lives, and will sometimes engage in sexual activity with different sexes at random. Same-sex sexual activity can also be seasonal in some animals, like male walruses who often engage in same-sex sexual activity with each other outside of the breeding season and will revert to heterosexual sexual activity during breeding season.[137]
Sigmund Freud theorized that every person has the ability to become bisexual at some time in his or her life.[11][10] He based this on the idea that enjoyable experiences of sexuality with the same sex, whether sought or unsought, acting on it or being fantasized, become an attachment to his or her needs and desires in social upbringing. Prominent psychoanalyst Dr. Joseph Merlino, Senior Editor of the book, Freud at 150: 21st Century Essays on a Man of Genius stated in an interview:
The word transgender historically (as well as within the context of this essay) refers to people who defy societal expectations regarding gender. Trans activists of the 1990s who championed the term left it purposely open-ended — it may refer to transsexuals (i.e., people who transition, who I’ll get to in a minute), people who identify outside of the gender binary, crossdressers (i.e., people who identify with their birth-assigned gender, but sometimes dress and/or express themselves as the other gender), people whose gender expression is non-conforming (e.g., feminine men, masculine women, people who are androgynous, etc.), and possibly others. Not everyone who falls under this umbrella will self-identify as “transgender,” but are all viewed by society as defying gender norms in some significant way.
The problems of defining gender by the existence/non-existence of gonads or certain sexual features is complicated by the existence of surgical methods to alter these features.[citation needed] Estimates run as high as one percent of live births exhibiting some degree of sexual ambiguity,[501][519] and between 0.1% and 0.2% of live births being ambiguous enough to become the subject of specialist medical attention, including sometimes involuntary surgery to address their sexual ambiguity.[520]
registered partnership proposed 2019 Constitutional ban since 1997[409] (Article 18 of the Constitution is generally interpreted as limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples[410][411][412][413][414][415])[b] LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[418] Bans some anti-gay discrimination[64] Transgender people allowed to change gender but require undergoing medical treatment such as HRT or surgery. No provisions for nonbinary people.
The prenatal hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to excess levels of sex hormones have masculinized brains and show increased homosexuality. Studies to provide evidence for the masculinization of the brain have however not been conducted to date. Research on special conditions such as CAH and DES indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female–female sex fantasies in adults. Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality.[26]

Gilbert Baker, an openly gay activist born in 1951, grew up in Parsons, Kansas, and went on to serve in the US army for about two years around 1970. After an honorable discharge, Gilbert taught himself to sew. In 1974, Baker met Harvey Milk, an influential gay leader, who three years later challenged Baker to come up with a symbol of pride for the gay community.[3] The original gay pride flag flew at the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade celebration on June 25, 1978. It has also been suggested that Baker may have been inspired by Judy Garland's singing "Over the Rainbow" and the Stonewall riots that happened a few days after Garland's death (she was one of the first gay icons).[4][5] Another suggestion for how the rainbow flag originated is that at college campuses during the 1960s, some people demonstrated for world peace by carrying a Flag of the Races (also called the Flag of the Human Race) with five horizontal stripes (from top to bottom they were red, white, brown, yellow, and black).[6] The first rainbow flags were commissioned by the fledgling pride committee and were produced by a team led by Baker that included artist Lynn Segerblom.[7] Segerblom was then known as Faerie Argyle Rainbow; she created the original dyeing process for the flags.[8] Baker is said to have gotten the idea for the rainbow flag from the Flag of the Races[9] in borrowing it from the Hippie movement of that time[10] largely influenced by pioneering gay activist Allen Ginsberg. The flag originally comprised eight stripes; Baker assigned specific meaning to each of the colors:[11][12][13]


On 15 November 2011, the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists, as a licensing body of professional psychiatrists in Hong Kong, published an announcement stating that homosexuality is not an illness and there is no scientifically proven evidence to support the attempts to change one's sexual orientation.[54] Until February 2012, the announcement has not been uploaded onto the College's website or published in any professional journals; it is, however, available in electronic pdf format upon request. The Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists is the very first professional authority in Asia that explicitly and publicly opined their professional standing on issues regarding homosexuality and treatments altering one's sexual orientation.[55]
Opponents of same-sex marriage have worked to prevent individual states from recognizing same-sex unions by attempting to amend the United States Constitution to restrict marriage to heterosexual unions. In 2006, the Federal Marriage Amendment, which would have prohibited states from recognizing same-sex marriages, was approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee on a party-line vote and was debated by the full Senate, but was ultimately defeated in both houses of Congress.[38] On April 2, 2014, the Alabama House of Representatives adopted a resolution calling for a constitutional convention to propose an amendment to ban same-sex marriage nationwide.[39]
The rainbow flag, commonly known as the gay pride flag or LGBT pride flag, is a symbol of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) pride and LGBT social movements. Other older uses of rainbow flags include a symbol of peace. The colors reflect the diversity of the LGBT community, as the flag is often used as a symbol of gay pride during LGBT rights marches. While this use of the rainbow flag originated in Northern California’s San Francisco Bay Area, the flag is now used worldwide.
While few societies have recognized same-sex unions as marriages, the historical and anthropological record reveals a large range of attitudes towards same-sex unions ranging from praise, through full acceptance and integration, sympathetic toleration, indifference, prohibition and discrimination, to persecution and physical annihilation.[citation needed] Opponents of same-sex marriages have argued that same-sex marriage, while doing good for the couples that participate in them and the children they are raising,[501] undermines a right of children to be raised by their biological mother and father.[502] Some supporters of same-sex marriages take the view that the government should have no role in regulating personal relationships,[503] while others argue that same-sex marriages would provide social benefits to same-sex couples.[504] The debate regarding same-sex marriages includes debate based upon social viewpoints as well as debate based on majority rules, religious convictions, economic arguments, health-related concerns, and a variety of other issues.[citation needed]

Sigmund Freud believed that every human being is bisexual in the sense of incorporating general attributes of both sexes. In his view, this was true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes being an aspect of this psychological bisexuality. Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side of this bisexual disposition would normally become dominant in men and the feminine side in women, but that all adults still have desires derived from both the masculine and the feminine sides of their natures. Freud did not claim that everyone is bisexual in the sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders. Freud's belief in innate bisexuality was rejected by Sándor Radó in 1940 and, following Radó, by many later psychoanalysts. Radó argued that there is no biological bisexuality in humans.[49] The psychoanalyst Edmund Bergler argued in Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life? (1956) that bisexuality does not exist and that all supposed bisexuals are homosexuals.[50]
[5] The American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, and others wrote in a Sep. 2007 amicus brief, "...allowing same-sex couples to marry would give them access to the social support that already facilitates and strengthens heterosexual marriages, with all of the psychological and physical health benefits associated with that support." [47] A 2012 study by researchers from UCLA, San Francisco State University, and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst found that same-sex married couples were "significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship." [113] A 2010 analysis published in the American Journal of Public Health found that after their states had banned gay marriage, gay, lesbian and bisexual people suffered a 37% increase in mood disorders, a 42% increase in alcohol-use disorders, and a 248% increase in generalized anxiety disorders. [69]

Maryland ended health insurance benefits for new domestic partnerships after same-sex marriage became legal in the state in 2013. [124] [135] The state of Washington automatically converted domestic partnerships to marriages when they legalized gay marriage in 2012, providing no option to retain domestic partnerships or civil unions unless one partner is at least 62 years old. [134] [123] The US Defense Department announced in Aug. 2013 that it would grant health insurance and other benefits to same-sex married partners of US troops, but that domestic partners would no longer be granted the same benefits. [125] The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the US Department of Labor recognized same-sex married couples for the purpose of granting tax, retirement, and health insurance benefits after the US Supreme Court declared part of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional in 2013, but they did not include domestic partnerships or civil unions. [126]
Common-law relationships in Manitoba (2004)[125] Legal in some provinces and territories since 2003, nationwide since 2005[126] Legal in some provinces and territories since 1996, nationwide since 2011[127] Since 1992[128] Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal in Manitoba and Ontario since 2015, and Vancouver and Nova Scotia since 2018 Transgender people can change their gender and name without completion of medical intervention and human rights protections explicitly include gender identity or expression within all of Canada since 2017[129][130][131][132]

+ UN decl. sign.[58] / Civil unions in Mexico City (2007), Coahuila (2007),[136] Colima (between 2013 and 2016),[137] Campeche (2013),[138] Jalisco (between 2014 and 2018),[139] Michoacán (2015) and Tlaxcala (2017) / Legal in Mexico City (2010),[140] Quintana Roo (2012),[141] Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015), Nayarit (2015), Jalisco (2016), Campeche (2016), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016), Morelos (2016), Chiapas (2017), Puebla (2017), Baja California (2017), Nuevo León (2019), Aguascalientes (2019) and San Luis Potosí

The issue of same-sex marriage frequently sparked emotional and political clashes between supporters and opponents. By the early 21st century, several jurisdictions, both at the national and subnational levels, had legalized same-sex marriage; in other jurisdictions, constitutional measures were adopted to prevent same-sex marriages from being sanctioned, or laws were enacted that refused to recognize such marriages performed elsewhere. That the same act was evaluated so differently by various groups indicates its importance as a social issue in the early 21st century; it also demonstrates the extent to which cultural diversity persisted both within and among countries. For tables on same-sex marriage around the world, in the United States, and in Australia, see below.
^ A. C. Alegria, Transgender identity and health care: Implications for psychosocial and physical evaluation, in the Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, volume 23, issue 4 (2011), pages 175–182: "Transgender, Umbrella term for persons who do not conform to gender norms in their identity and/or behavior (Meyerowitz, 2002). Transsexual, Subset of transgenderism; persons who feel discordance between natal sex and identity (Meyerowitz, 2002)."
Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January 1972, a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust.[108] In a September 1976 interview with Playboy, Bowie said, "It's true—I am a bisexual. But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me."[109] In a 1983 interview, he said it was "the biggest mistake I ever made",[110][111] elaborating in 2002 he explained "I don't think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a lot tougher in America. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [...] America is a very puritanical place, and I think it stood in the way of so much I wanted to do."[112]
Cross-dressing per se is not illegal.[9] Hong Kong law allows the change of legal documents such as the identity card, and passport, but does not allow the birth certificate to be changed. Such change requires sex reassignment surgery,[10] which includes the removal of reproductive organs, effectively rendering the person sterile in exchange for legal recognition of gender identity.[11]

Malta has recognized same-sex unions since April 2014, following the enactment of the Civil Unions Act, first introduced in September 2013. It established civil unions with same rights, responsibilities, and obligations as marriage, including the right of joint adoption and recognition of foreign same-sex marriage.[271] The Maltese Parliament gave final approval to the legislation on 14 April 2014 by a vote of 37 in favour and 30 abstentions. President Marie Louise Coleiro Preca signed it into law on 16 April. The first foreign same-sex marriage was registered on 29 April 2014 and the first civil union was performed on 14 June 2014.[271]
In the 2018 Costa Rican general election, the IACHR ruling on same-sex marriage became a prominent issue. Carlos Alvarado Quesada, who supports LGBT rights and favors the implementation of the ruling, won the election with 60.7% of the vote, defeating by wide margin Fabricio Alvarado, a vocal opponent of LGBT rights who was against the implementation of the ruling. On 8 August 2018, the Supreme Court of Costa Rica ruled that the prohibition of same-sex marriage in the Family Code is unconstitutional, giving Congress 18 months to reform the law or the prohibition will be automatically lifted without legislation so it will be legal after 26 May 2020.[141]
“LGBT”有许多变体用法,有些只是改變其字母排列順序。“LGBT”和“GLBT”是最常用的两种[22]。在不包含跨性別者時,它就變成“LGB”[22][25]。它也可能加入兩個“Q”来代表酷兒與疑性恋,變成“LGBTQ”或“LGBTQQ”;加入一個“I”來代表雙性人,變成“LGBTI”;加入另一個“T”來代表變性人,變成“LGBTT”;加入一個“A”來代表支持同性戀的異性戀盟友(straight allies),變成“LGBTA”[26][27][28][29][30][8][31][32]。如果以上全部都包含進去的話,就變成“LGBTTIQQA”,不過這種用法極為少見。臺灣則有“LGBTSQQ”的用法,其中的“S”指的是「直同志(Tonzhi-Friendly Straight)」。泛性恋和酷儿经常被归类在双性恋之下;变性人和双性人被部分人归类在跨性别之下,但这种归类遭到变性人和双性人的反对。各种变体的字母顺序并不统一,除了上文提到的以“LGBT”或“GLBT”两种,也有其它以任意顺序排列的情况,但不如前两种常见[22]。LGBT一词的各种变体并没有任何政治意味,但是反应了使用者对不同群体或个体的偏好[33]。
Government revenue from marriage comes from marriage licenses, higher income taxes in some circumstances (the so-called "marriage penalty"), and decreases in costs for state benefit programs. [4] In July 2012 New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced that gay marriage had contributed $259 million to the city's economy since the practice became legal there in July 2011. [43] In 2012, the Williams Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) found that in the first five years after Massachusetts legalized gay marriage in 2004, same-sex wedding expenditures (such as venue rental, wedding cakes, etc.) added $111 million to the state's economy. [114] A 2014 series of reports also by the Williams Institute estimated that legalizing same-sex marriage would boost the economies of the 11 US states studied by a total of $723 million over three years. [87] The Congressional Budget Office estimated in 2004 that federally-recognized gay marriage would cut the budget deficit by around $450 million a year. [89]
Same-sex marriages are licensed in and recognized by all U.S. states and District of Columbia, as well as all U.S. territories except American Samoa.[40] On July 3, 2015, the Attorney General for American Samoa stated "we are reviewing the opinion [Obergefell v. Hodges] and its potential applicability to American Samoa, and will provide comment when it is completed."[41] Currently same-sex marriages are neither licensed nor recognized there. On January 6, 2016, Alabama's Chief Justice, Roy Moore, issued a ruling forbidding state officials from issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.[42] The ruling had no effect as all Alabama counties continued either issuing marriage licenses to all couples or not issue licenses at all. In May 2016 Moore was charged with ethics violations by the state Judicial Inquiry Commission for the ruling,[43] subsequently being suspended from the bench for the remainder of his term on September 30 of that year.[44]
In California, the School Success and Opportunity Act authored by Assemblyman Tom Ammiano, which became state law on January 1, 2014, says "A pupil shall be permitted to participate in sex-segregated school programs and activities, including athletic teams and competitions, and use facilities consistent with his or her gender identity, irrespective of the gender listed on the pupil's records."[115][116]

Australia became the second nation in Oceania to legalise same-sex marriage when the Australian Parliament passed a bill on 7 December 2017.[171] The bill received royal assent on 8 December, and took effect on 9 December 2017.[172][173] The law removed the ban on same-sex marriage which previously existed and followed a voluntary postal survey held from 12 September to 7 November 2017, which returned a 61.6% Yes vote for same-sex marriage.[174] The same legislation also legalised same-sex marriage in all of Australia's external territories.[173]
The NAACP, the leading African-American civil rights organization, has pledged its support for gay rights and same-sex marriage, stating that they "support marriage equality consistent with equal protection under the law provided under the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution", and has declared that same-sex marriage is a civil right.[31]
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