The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), on May 21, 2012, named same-sex marriage as "one of the key civil rights struggles of our time." [61] In 1967 the US Supreme Court unanimously confirmed in Loving v. Virginia that marriage is "one of the basic civil rights of man." [60] The White House website lists same-sex marriage amongst a selection of civil rights, along with freedom from employment discrimination, equal pay for women, and fair sentencing for minority criminals. [118]

In the United States and Canada, professional organizations including the American Anthropological Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Nursing, the American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the Canadian Psychological Association, the American Sociological Association, the National Association of Social Workers, the American Psychoanalytic Association, the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, and the American Academy of Family Physicians have stated that the scientific evidence supports the following conclusions: homosexuality is a natural and normal human sexuality, sexual orientation is not a choice, gay people form stable and committed relationships that are essentially equivalent to the relationships of heterosexuals, same-sex parents are no less capable than opposite-sex parents to raise children, no civilization or viable social order depends on restricting marriage to heterosexuals, and the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or even better than the children of opposite-sex couples.[9]


In autumn 2004 several gay businesses in London were ordered by Westminster City Council to remove the rainbow flag from their premises, as its display required planning permission.[citation needed] When one shop applied for permission, the Planning sub-committee refused the application on the chair's casting vote (May 19, 2005), a decision condemned by gay councillors in Westminster and the then Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone. In November the council announced a reversal of policy, stating that most shops and bars would be allowed to fly the rainbow flag without planning permission.

Transgender and transsexual are commonly confused terms that both refer to gender identity. Transgender is a broader, more inclusive category that includes all individuals who do not identify with the gender that corresponds to the sex they were assigned at birth. Transsexual is a more narrow category that includes individuals who desire to physically transition to the gender with which they identify. All transsexual persons are transgender. However, not all transgender persons are transsexual. Transgender women are sometimes referred to as trans women. Some may also be known as male-to-female transsexuals, MTFs, transsexual women, transgirls, or tgirls. The term "transsexual" originated as a medical term and is sometimes considered pejorative. It is always best to ask a person which term is preferred.
The 21st Metro Manila Pride March in 2015, entitled Fight For Love, was held on the 25th of July. The turnout of the event was an estimated number of 2,000 participants.[56] The following 2016 Metro Manila Pride March was themed Let Love In. There was an uncertainty whether or not the event would take place due to the Orlando Nightclub Shooting, but the event still pushed through. The march began at Luneta Park on the 25th of June 2016.[57] The 2017 Pride March was entitled #HereTogether. On the 24th of June that year, members and supporters of the LGBT Community gathered at Plaza de los Alcaldes, Marikina to begin the 2017 Metro Manila Pride March.[58]
Among the more common forms so documented were common-law marriage; morganatic marriage, in which titles and property do not pass to children; exchange marriage, in which a sister and a brother from one family marry a brother and a sister from another; and group marriages based on polygyny (co-wives) or polyandry (co-husbands). Ideal matches have included those between cross-cousins, between parallel cousins, to a group of sisters (in polygyny) or brothers (in polyandry), or between different age sets. In many cultures the exchange of some form of surety, such as bride service, bridewealth, or dowry, has been a traditional part of the marriage contract.
Perhaps because systems of religion and systems of civil authority often reflect and support each other, the countries that had reached consensus on the issue by the early 2000s tended to have a single dominant religious affiliation across the population; many such places had a single, state-sponsored religion. This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmark, where the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops (representing the state religion) had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships. In other cases, the cultural homogeneity supported by the dominant religion did not result in the application of doctrine to the civic realm but may nonetheless have fostered a smoother series of discussions among the citizenry: Belgium and Spain had legalized same-sex marriage, for instance, despite official opposition from their predominant religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church.
With misterb&b, travel the world renting cozy apartments, private rooms and amazing homes and be welcomed by the gay community everywhere you go! Rent a loft in Soho, share a room in Barcelona, a couch in the Castro or a cozy apartment in Le Marais or Chelsea! Come and try the misterb&b experience in all gay travel destinations! 135 countries and 310,000 listings - Together we are connecting the global gay travel community and helping it travel the world more safely. Should you encounter problems with misterb&b, please refer to our Help Center. misterb&b is not affiliated, endorsed, or otherwise associated with Airbnb
Among the ancient Middle Eastern Akkadian people, a salzikrum was a person who appeared biologically female but had distinct male traits. Salzikrum is a compound word meaning male daughter. According to the Code of Hammurabi, salzikrūm had inheritance rights like that of priestesses; they inherited from their fathers, unlike regular daughters. A salzikrum's father could also stipulate that she inherit a certain amount.[162] In Ancient Rome, the Gallae were castrated[163] followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and can be regarded as transgender in today's terms.[164][165]

Vancouver's Pride Parade takes place each year during the August long weekend (BC Day falls on the first Monday of August in the province of British Columbia). The parade takes place in the downtown core with over 150 floats moving along Robson Street, Denman Street and along Davie Street. The parade has a crowd of over 150,000 attendees with well over half a million in attendance for the August 4, 2013 Pride Parade.[133][134] New for 2013 are the permanently painted rainbow crosswalks in Vancouver's West End neighbourhood at Davie and Bute streets.[135] The city of Surrey, in the Metro Vancouver area also hosts a Pride Festival, though on a much smaller scale.[136]

On 29 June 2018, two family judges in Cuenca, Ecuador ruled that the Civil Registry must issue same-sex marriage licenses on request, stating that the decision of the IACHR trumped the Ecuadorian Constitution's definition of marriage. The Registry has appealed, but the Constitutional Court has indicated that it is likely to rule in favor of same-sex marriage.[159][160]
Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance. Pride, as opposed to shame and social stigma, is the predominant outlook that bolsters most LGBT rights movements throughout the world. Pride has lent its name to LGBT-themed organizations, institutes, foundations, book titles, periodicals and even a cable TV station and the Pride Library.
Gilbert Baker, an openly gay activist born in 1951, grew up in Parsons, Kansas, and went on to serve in the US army for about two years around 1970. After an honorable discharge, Gilbert taught himself to sew. In 1974, Baker met Harvey Milk, an influential gay leader, who three years later challenged Baker to come up with a symbol of pride for the gay community.[3] The original gay pride flag flew at the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade celebration on June 25, 1978. It has also been suggested that Baker may have been inspired by Judy Garland's singing "Over the Rainbow" and the Stonewall riots that happened a few days after Garland's death (she was one of the first gay icons).[4][5] Another suggestion for how the rainbow flag originated is that at college campuses during the 1960s, some people demonstrated for world peace by carrying a Flag of the Races (also called the Flag of the Human Race) with five horizontal stripes (from top to bottom they were red, white, brown, yellow, and black).[6] The first rainbow flags were commissioned by the fledgling pride committee and were produced by a team led by Baker that included artist Lynn Segerblom.[7] Segerblom was then known as Faerie Argyle Rainbow; she created the original dyeing process for the flags.[8] Baker is said to have gotten the idea for the rainbow flag from the Flag of the Races[9] in borrowing it from the Hippie movement of that time[10] largely influenced by pioneering gay activist Allen Ginsberg. The flag originally comprised eight stripes; Baker assigned specific meaning to each of the colors:[11][12][13]
The first marches were both serious and fun, and served to inspire the widening activist movement; they were repeated in the following years, and more and more annual marches started up in other cities throughout the world. In Atlanta and New York City and the marches were called Gay Liberation Marches, and the day of celebration was called "Gay Liberation Day"; in Los Angeles and San Francisco they became known as 'Gay Freedom Marches' and the day was called "Gay Freedom Day". As more cities and even smaller towns began holding their own celebrations, these names spread. The rooted ideology behind the parades is a critique of space which has been produced to seem heteronormative and 'straight', and therefore any act appearing to be homosexual is considered dissident by society. The Parade brings this homosexual behaviour into the space.
In some cases, animals will choose to engage in sexual activity with different sexes at different times in their lives, and will sometimes engage in sexual activity with different sexes at random. Same-sex sexual activity can also be seasonal in some animals, like male walruses who often engage in same-sex sexual activity with each other outside of the breeding season and will revert to heterosexual sexual activity during breeding season.[137]
Children need both a mother and a father. Girls who are raised apart from their fathers are reportedly at higher risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy. [52] Children without a mother are deprived of the emotional security and unique advice that mothers provide. A 2012 study by Mark Regnerus, PhD, Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Texas at Austin, found that children raised by parents who had same-sex relationships suffered more difficulties in life (including sexual abuse and unemployment in later life) than children raised by "intact biological famil[ies]." [133] Doug Mainwaring, the openly gay co-founder of National Capital Tea Party Patriots, stated that "it became increasingly apparent to me, even if I found somebody else exactly like me, who loved my kids as much as I do, there would still be a gaping hole in their lives because they need a mom... I don't want to see children being engineered for same-sex couples where there is either a mom missing or a dad missing." [53]

On June 26, 2015, the US Supreme Court ruled that gay marriage is a right protected by the US Constitution in all 50 states. Prior to their decision, same-sex marriage was already legal in 37 states and Washington DC, but was banned in the remaining 13. US public opinion had shifted significantly over the years, from 27% approval of gay marriage in 1996 to 55% in 2015, the year it became legal throughout the United States, to 61% in 2019.
Perhaps because systems of religion and systems of civil authority often reflect and support each other, the countries that had reached consensus on the issue by the early 2000s tended to have a single dominant religious affiliation across the population; many such places had a single, state-sponsored religion. This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmark, where the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops (representing the state religion) had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships. In other cases, the cultural homogeneity supported by the dominant religion did not result in the application of doctrine to the civic realm but may nonetheless have fostered a smoother series of discussions among the citizenry: Belgium and Spain had legalized same-sex marriage, for instance, despite official opposition from their predominant religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church.

Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States has shifted rapidly since polling of the American people regarding the issue first began on an occasional basis in the 1980s and a regular basis in the 1990s, with support having consistently risen while opposition has continually fallen. National support rose above 50% for the first time in 2011 and has not gone below that mark since then. National support rose to 60% for the first time in 2015 and has not gone below that mark since then. Support continues to rise while opposition continues to fall each year, driven in large part by a significant generational gap in support.[182]


In June 2004 LGBT activists sailed to Australia's uninhabited Coral Sea Islands Territory and raised the rainbow flag, proclaiming the territory independent of Australia, calling it the Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands in protest to the Australian government's refusal to recognise same-sex marriages. The rainbow flag is the official flag of the kingdom.[24]
The Supreme Court has declared that it is unconstitutional to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples in all states,[144] but as state laws were not invalidated, individual injunctions must still be obtained from the courts[145][146] / Legal in Mexico City (2010),[147] Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016), Morelos (2016), Campeche (2016), Veracruz (2016), Baja California (2017), Querétaro (2017), Chiapas (2017) and Puebla (2017)[148][149] Bans all anti-gay discrimination[150] / Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City (2008),[151] Michoacán (2017), Nayarit (2017), Coahuila,and Hidalgo (2019)[152]
The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nero, who is reported to have married two other males on different occasions. The first was with one of Nero's own freedmen, Pythagoras, with whom Nero took the role of the bride.[130] Later, as a groom, Nero married Sporus, a young boy, to replace the adolescent female concubine he had killed[131][132] and married him in a very public ceremony with all the solemnities of matrimony, after which Sporus was forced to pretend to be the female concubine that Nero had killed and act as though they were really married.[131] A friend gave the "bride" away as required by law. The marriage was celebrated in both Greece and Rome in extravagant public ceremonies.[133]
In 2013, the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government could not deny federal benefits of marriage to same sex couples, if the couple was married in a state that allowed the marriage. Some states do not fully recognize same sex marriage, but they do offer civil unions or domestic partnerships, so that the same sex couples can enjoy some of the same rights and benefits of marriage.
With misterb&b, travel the world renting cozy apartments, private rooms and amazing homes and be welcomed by the gay community everywhere you go! Rent a loft in Soho, share a room in Barcelona, a couch in the Castro or a cozy apartment in Le Marais or Chelsea! Come and try the misterb&b experience in all gay travel destinations! 135 countries and 310,000 listings - Together we are connecting the global gay travel community and helping it travel the world more safely. Should you encounter problems with misterb&b, please refer to our Help Center. misterb&b is not affiliated, endorsed, or otherwise associated with Airbnb
On Saturday, June 27, 1970, Chicago Gay Liberation organized a march[10] from Washington Square Park ("Bughouse Square") to the Water Tower at the intersection of Michigan and Chicago avenues, which was the route originally planned, and then many of the participants spontaneously marched on to the Civic Center (now Richard J. Daley) Plaza.[11] The date was chosen because the Stonewall events began on the last Saturday of June and because organizers wanted to reach the maximum number of Michigan Avenue shoppers. Subsequent Chicago parades have been held on the last Sunday of June, coinciding with the date of many similar parades elsewhere.
In 2000, the University of Hawaii at Manoa changed its sports teams' name from "Rainbow Warriors" to "Warriors" and redesigned its logo to eliminate a rainbow from it. Initially Athletic Director Hugh Yoshida said that the change was to distance the school's athletic program from homosexuality. When this drew criticism, Yoshida then said the change was merely to avoid brand confusion.[19] The school then allowed each team to select its own name, leading to a mix including "Rainbow Warriors", "Warriors", "Rainbows" and "Rainbow Wahine". This decision was reversed in May 2013, when current athletic director Ben Jay reversed his earlier decision in February to force all of the men's athletic teams to be just Warriors from the patchwork of names from dropping the Rainbow Warriors name.[20]
Pansexual, omnisexual, anthrosexual, and pomosexual (postmodern sexuality) are substitute terms that, rather than referring to both or "bi" sex attraction, refer to all or "omni" sex attraction and are used mainly by those who wish to express acceptance of all sex possibilities, including transgender and intersex people, not just two. Pansexuality sometimes includes an attraction for less mainstream sexual activities, such as BDSM. Some people who might otherwise identify as pansexual or omnisexual choose to self-identify as bisexual because the term bisexual is more widely known, and because they see it as an important term in identity politics.
Michelle Bachelet, the President of Chile, who was elected to a second term in March 2014, promised to work for the implementation of same-sex marriage and had a majority in both houses of Congress. Previously, she said, "Marriage equality, I believe we have to make it happen."[369] Polling shows majority support for same-sex marriage among Chileans.[370] A poll carried out in September 2015 by the pollster Cadem Plaza Pública found that 60% of Chileans supported same-sex marriage, whilst 36% were against it.[371]
In August 2012, the first Ugandan pride parade was held in Entebbe to protest the government's treatment of its LGBT citizens and the attempts by the Ugandan Parliament to adopt harsher sodomy laws, colloquially named the Kill the Gays Bill, which would include life imprisonment for aggravated homosexuality.[39] A second pride parade was held in Entebbe in August 2013.[40] The law was promulgated in December 2013 and subsequently ruled invalid by the Constitutional Court of Uganda on August 1, 2014 on technical grounds. On August 9, 2014, Ugandans held a third pride parade in Entebbe despite indications that the ruling may be appealed and/or the law reintroduced in Parliament and homosexual acts still being illegal in the country.[41]
^ Jump up to: a b Joan C. Chrisler, Donald R. McCreary, Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology, volume 1 (2010, ISBN 1-4419-1465-X), page 486: "Transgender is a broad term characterized by a challenge of traditional gender roles and gender identity[. ...] For example, some cultures classify transgender individuals as a third gender, thereby treating this phenomenon as normative."

Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance. Pride, as opposed to shame and social stigma, is the predominant outlook that bolsters most LGBT rights movements throughout the world. Pride has lent its name to LGBT-themed organizations, institutes, foundations, book titles, periodicals and even a cable TV station and the Pride Library.


Dublin is the latest East Bay city to consider flying the flag on city property, but may be the first to reject the notion directly. Other cities that have agreed to fly the flag on municipal property include Richmond, Concord and Pleasant Hill, Kumagai said. According to a Dublin city staff report, cities such as Antioch, Hayward and Livermore have policies stating which flags are allowed to fly at their civic centers and have not flown the rainbow flag.
August 4, 2010 June 28, 2013 Federal court decision → legislative statute U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California ruling in Perry v. Schwarzenegger, finding Proposition 8 unconstitutional. Stayed during appeal, affirmed by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals as Perry v. Brown. Certiorari granted and appealed as Hollingsworth v. Perry to the U.S. Supreme Court; the high court dismissed Hollingsworth for lack of standing and vacated the Ninth Circuit decision below, resulting with the original decision in Perry left intact.[60] Gender-neutral marriage bill passed by the California State Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of California took effect on January 1, 2015.[61]
Belgrade Pride parade was held on October 10, 2010 with about 1000 participants[94] and while the parade itself went smoothly, a riot broke out in which 5600 police clashed with six thousand anti-gay protesters[95] at Serbia's second ever Gay Pride march attempt, with nearly 147 policemen and around 20 civilians reported wounded in the violence. Every attempt of organizing the parade between 2010 and 2014 was banned.[96]
Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that same-sex attraction does not have adaptive value because it has no association with potential reproductive success. Instead, bisexuality can be due to normal variation in brain plasticity. More recently, it has been suggested that same-sex alliances may have helped males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities. Same-sex allies could have helped females to move to the safer and resource richer center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their offspring successfully.[56]
Critics, such as Gay Shame, charge the parades with an undue emphasis on sex and fetish-related interests, which they see as counterproductive to LGBT interests, and expose the "gay community" to ridicule. LGBT activists[who?] counter that traditional media have played a role in emphasizing the most outlandish and therefore non-representative aspects of the community. This in turn has prompted participants to engage in more flamboyant costumes to gain media coverage.
The results of more than a century of anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution. Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies.[36]
There is increasing inclusion and visibility of bisexuals, particularly in the LGBT community.[82][83] American psychologist Beth Firestone writes that since she wrote her first book on bisexuality, in 1996, "bisexuality has gained visibility, although progress is uneven and awareness of bisexuality is still minimal or absent in many of the more remote regions of our country and internationally."[84]
Civil unions and domestic partnerships can provide the protections and benefits gay couples need without changing the definition of marriage. Privileges available to couples in civil unions and domestic partnerships can include health insurance benefits, inheritance without a will, the ability to file state taxes jointly, and hospital visitation rights. [155] [156] 2016 presidential candidate and former Hewlett-Packard CEO Carly Fiorina stated that civil unions are adequate as an equivalent to marriage for same-sex couples: "Benefits are being bestowed to gay couples [in civil unions]... I believe we need to respect those who believe that the word marriage has a spiritual foundation... Why can't we respect and tolerate that while at the same time saying government cannot bestow benefits unequally." [157] 43rd US President George W. Bush expressed his support for same-sex civil unions while in office: "I don't think we should deny people rights to a civil union, a legal arrangement, if that's what a state chooses to do so... I strongly believe that marriage ought to be defined as between a union between a man and a woman. Now, having said that, states ought to be able to have the right to pass laws that enable people to be able to have rights like others." [158]
On June 26, 1994, to celebrate the 25th Anniversary of the Stonewall Riots, Progressive Organization of Gays in the Philippines (ProGay Philippines) and Metropolitan Community Church (MCC) Manila organized the first LGBT Pride March in Asia, marching from EDSA corner Quezon Avenue to Quezon City Memorial Circle (Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines) and highlighting broad social issues. At Quezon City Memorial Circle, a program was held with a Queer Pride Mass and solidarity remarks from various organizations and individuals.

On June 30, 2005, the fourth annual Pride march of Jerusalem took place. The Jerusalem parade has been met with resistance due to the high presence of religious bodies in the city. It had originally been prohibited by a municipal ban which was cancelled by the court. Many of the religious leaders of Jerusalem's Muslim, Jewish, and Christian communities had arrived to a rare consensus asking the municipal government to cancel the permit of the paraders.

+ UN decl. sign.[58] De facto unions in Catalonia (1998),[60] Aragon (1999),[60] Navarre (2000),[60] Castile-La Mancha (2000),[60] Valencia (2001),[544] the Balearic Islands (2001),[545] Madrid (2001),[60] Asturias (2002),[546] Castile and León (2002),[547] Andalusia (2002),[60] the Canary Islands (2003),[60] Extremadura (2003),[60] Basque Country (2003),[60] Cantabria (2005),[548] Galicia (2008)[549] La Rioja (2010),[550] and Murcia (2018),[551][552] and in both autonomous cities; Ceuta (1998)[553] and Melilla (2008).[554] Legal since 2005[555] Legal since 2005[556][557] Bans all anti-gay discrimination[64]
Same-sex marriages are licensed in and recognized by all U.S. states and District of Columbia, as well as all U.S. territories except American Samoa.[40] On July 3, 2015, the Attorney General for American Samoa stated "we are reviewing the opinion [Obergefell v. Hodges] and its potential applicability to American Samoa, and will provide comment when it is completed."[41] Currently same-sex marriages are neither licensed nor recognized there. On January 6, 2016, Alabama's Chief Justice, Roy Moore, issued a ruling forbidding state officials from issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.[42] The ruling had no effect as all Alabama counties continued either issuing marriage licenses to all couples or not issue licenses at all. In May 2016 Moore was charged with ethics violations by the state Judicial Inquiry Commission for the ruling,[43] subsequently being suspended from the bench for the remainder of his term on September 30 of that year.[44]
In August 2018, the Supreme Court of Justice of Costa Rica ruled that the right of same-sex couples to marry is guaranteed by the American Convention on Human Rights, in line with a January 2018 ruling by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and that the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica has a grace period of eighteen months to amend the marriage law to align with the Convention after which same-sex marriage will automatically become established by law in Costa Rica.[141]
Gay marriage bans cause humiliation and uncertainty for children being raised by same-sex couples. In ruling Texas' gay marriage ban unconstitutional, San Antonio-based federal judge Orlando Garcia stated that the ban "causes needless stigmatization and humiliation for children being raised by the loving same-sex couples being targeted." [138] Children of unmarried same-sex couples are denied the stability that comes with having married parents, including the guarantee of child support in the case of divorce and an automatic legal connection to both parents. [107] If no legal relationship is established, the child cannot be sure of receiving financial support from the non-biologically related partner, and is not guaranteed an inheritance if that partner dies without leaving a will. [151]
There is no complete data on the number of same-sex marriages conducted in the United States. Marriages and divorces are recorded by states, counties, and territories, plus New York City and the District of Columbia, but not by the federal government. States such as Oregon do not distinguish between opposite-sex and same-sex marriages in their official records. The legal records on marriage and divorce belong to the states.[155] In August 2016, the Treasury Department estimated the number of same-sex marriages by linking the tax returns of same-sex couples who had filed jointly in 2014 with their Social Security records. (Although this method excluded couples who file singly, these are small in number; of all married couples who file taxes, 97.5% file jointly.) This research showed that in 2014 there were about 183,280 married same-sex couples in the country, or "roughly a third of 1 percent of all marriages" according to the New York Times.[156]

Human bisexuality has mainly been studied alongside homosexuality. Van Wyk and Geist argue that this is a problem for sexuality research because the few studies that have observed bisexuals separately have found that bisexuals are often different from both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Furthermore, bisexuality does not always represent a halfway point between the dichotomy. Research indicates that bisexuality is influenced by biological, cognitive and cultural variables in interaction, and this leads to different types of bisexuality.[34]


In 2006, RTHK broadcast a television film called Gay Lovers, which received criticism from social conservatives for "encouraging" people to become gay. In 2007, the Broadcasting Authority ruled that the RTHK-produced programme "Gay Lovers" was "unfair, partial and biased towards homosexuality, and having the effect of promoting the acceptance of homosexual marriage." On 5 May 2008 Justice Michael Hartmann overturned the ruling of the Broadcasting Authority that "Gay Lovers"'s discussion on same sex marriage was deemed to have breached broadcasting guidelines for not including anti-gay views.[42]
Several studies comparing bisexuals with hetero- or homosexuals have indicated that bisexuals have higher rates of sexual activity, fantasy or erotic interest. Van Wyk and Geist found that male and female bisexuals had more sexual fantasy than heterosexuals. Dixon found that bisexual men had more sexual activities with women than did heterosexual men. Bisexual men masturbated more but had fewer happy marriages than heterosexuals. Bressler and Lavender (1986) found that bisexual women had more orgasms per week and they described them as stronger than those of hetero- or homosexual women. They also found that marriages with a bisexual female were happier than heterosexual unions, observed less instance of hidden infidelity, and ended in divorce less frequently. Goode and Haber found bisexual women to be sexually mature earlier, masturbate and enjoy masturbation more and to be more experienced in different types of heterosexual contact.[34]

The prenatal hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain. This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. However, it has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due to high prenatal levels of unbound testosterone that results from a lack of receptors at particular brain sites. Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D:4D ratio could be over-masculinized.[56]
Girls who are raised apart from their fathers are reportedly at higher risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy. [52] Children without a mother are deprived of the emotional security and unique advice that mothers provide. A 2012 study by Mark Regnerus, PhD, Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Texas at Austin, found that children raised by parents who had same-sex relationships suffered more difficulties in life (including sexual abuse and unemployment in later life) than children raised by "intact biological famil[ies]." [133] Doug Mainwaring, the openly gay co-founder of National Capital Tea Party Patriots, stated that "it became increasingly apparent to me, even if I found somebody else exactly like me, who loved my kids as much as I do, there would still be a gaping hole in their lives because they need a mom... I don't want to see children being engineered for same-sex couples where there is either a mom missing or a dad missing." [53]
The Court said that governments "must recognise and guarantee all the rights that are derived from a family bond between people of the same sex". They also said that it was inadmissible and discriminatory for a separate legal provision to be established (such as civil unions) instead of same-sex marriage. The Court demanded that governments "guarantee access to all existing forms of domestic legal systems, including the right to marriage, in order to ensure the protection of all the rights of families formed by same-sex couples without discrimination". Recognising the difficulty in passing such laws in countries where there is strong opposition to same-sex marriage, it recommended that governments pass temporary decrees until new legislation is brought in.[153]

"Brief of the American Psychological Association, The California Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy as amici curiae in support of plaintiff-appellees – Appeal from United States District Court for the Northern District of California Civil Case No. 09-CV-2292 VRW (Honorable Vaughn R. Walker)" (PDF). Retrieved 5 November 2010.
In Latin American cultures, a travesti is a person who has been assigned male at birth and who has a feminine, transfeminine, or "femme" gender identity. Travestis generally undergo hormonal treatment, use female gender expression including new names and pronouns from the masculine ones they were given when assigned a sex, and might use breast implants, but they are not offered or do not desire sex-reassignment surgery. Travesti might be regarded as a gender in itself (a "third gender"), a mix between man and woman ("intergender/androgynes"), or the presence of both masculine and feminine identities in a single person ("bigender"). They are framed as something entirely separate from transgender women, who possess the same gender identity of people assigned female at birth.[citation needed]
In Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture of certain tribes until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as wasteful and celebrated homosexuality instead. They believed that in sharing semen, they are sharing their life force, yet women simply wasted this force any time they didn't get pregnant after sex. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.[56]
Allowing gay couples to wed could further weaken the institution of marriage. Traditional marriage is already threatened with high divorce rates (between 40% and 50%), and 40.7% of babies were born to unmarried mothers in 2012. [50] [51] [116] Former US Senator (R-PA) and presidential candidate Rick Santorum stated that "Legalization of gay marriage would further undermine an institution that is essential to the well-being of children and our society. Do we need to confuse future generations of Americans even more about the role and importance of an institution that is so critical to the stability of our country?" [137] Ryan T. Anderson, William E. Simon Fellow in Religion and a Free Society at The Heritage Foundation, said "In recent decades, marriage has been weakened by a revisionist view that is more about adults’ desires than children’s needs... Redefining marriage to include same-sex relationships is the culmination of this revisionism, and it would leave emotional intensity as the only thing that sets marriage apart from other bonds." [70]
Christopher Street Liberation Day on June 28, 1970 marked the first anniversary of the Stonewall riots with an assembly on Christopher Street and the first Gay Pride march in U.S. history, covering the 51 blocks to Central Park. The march took less than half the scheduled time due to excitement, but also due to wariness about walking through the city with gay banners and signs. Although the parade permit was delivered only two hours before the start of the march, the marchers encountered little resistance from onlookers.[28] The New York Times reported (on the front page) that the marchers took up the entire street for about 15 city blocks.[27] Reporting by The Village Voice was positive, describing "the out-front resistance that grew out of the police raid on the Stonewall Inn one year ago".[29]
The British Consulate-General in Hong Kong refrains from providing such a service to British nationals because UK law requires the Hong Kong government's objection to them to be respected.[29][30][31] Thus, British nationals are able to apply for a same-sex civil partnership ceremony with British consulates or embassies in the following 22 countries.[32]
Gay marriage bans cause humiliation and uncertainty for children being raised by same-sex couples. In ruling Texas' gay marriage ban unconstitutional, San Antonio-based federal judge Orlando Garcia stated that the ban "causes needless stigmatization and humiliation for children being raised by the loving same-sex couples being targeted." [138] Children of unmarried same-sex couples are denied the stability that comes with having married parents, including the guarantee of child support in the case of divorce and an automatic legal connection to both parents. [107] If no legal relationship is established, the child cannot be sure of receiving financial support from the non-biologically related partner, and is not guaranteed an inheritance if that partner dies without leaving a will. [151]
Transgender, unlike transsexual, is a term for people whose identity, expression, behavior, or general sense of self does not conform to what is usually associated with the sex they were born in the place they were born. It is often said sex is a matter of the body, while gender occurs in the mind. Gender is an internal sense of being male, female, or other. People often use binary terms, for instance, masculine or feminine, to describe gender just as they do when referring to sex. But gender is more complex and encompasses more than just two possibilities. Gender also is influenced by culture, class, and race because behavior, activities, and attributes seen as appropriate in one society or group may be viewed otherwise in another.

The 43rd Parliament saw an increased focus on the subject of same-sex marriage, with a flurry of legislative activity, including three Bills designed to amend the Marriage Act 1961 in order to allow people the right to marry, irrespective of their sex (one Bill was introduced by Labor backbencher Stephen Jones, one by Greens MP Adam Bandt and Independent MP Andrew Wilkie and one by Greens Senator Sarah Hanson-Young). The Bills, if enacted, would also have removed the prohibition on the recognition of marriage between same-sex couples solemnised in a foreign country. These Bills were the subject of two parliamentary committee inquiries, but were not passed by the Parliament.

Between December 2013 and August 2014, federal judges in 14 states overturned state bans of same-sex marriage. In all but two of those states, the rulings were stayed, although some of the states briefly performed same-sex marriages prior to their suspension. U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced that those marriages would be recognized by the federal government, and in February 2014 he introduced a Department of Justice policy to grant equal protection and treatment to all lawful marriages in the United States. In October the U.S. Supreme Court declined to review appeals of federal court decisions in five states, which effectively made same-sex marriage legal in those jurisdictions. As an indirect consequence, same-sex marriage was soon legalized by U.S. district courts in several additional states. By the end of 2014, the number of states where such marriages were legal had reached 35—more than twice as many as at the beginning of the year.
On 29 June 2018, two family judges in Cuenca, Ecuador ruled that the Civil Registry must issue same-sex marriage licenses on request, stating that the decision of the IACHR trumped the Ecuadorian Constitution's definition of marriage. The Registry has appealed, but the Constitutional Court has indicated that it is likely to rule in favor of same-sex marriage.[159][160]
In January 2019 the Hong Kong High Court agreed to hear two challenges to the city's refusal to recognise same-sex marriage. The two separate legal challenges were mounted by a 21-year-old University of Hong Kong student, known as TF, and a 31-year-old activist, known as STK, who argued that the inability of same-sex couples to get married violated their right to equality under the city’s Bill of Rights and the Basic Law.[27] The judge in the case gave the applications license to be heard by the court, though suspended them to first hear another case involving a 29 year old lesbian, who is seeking for a civil union partnership system to be implemented in Hong Kong.[27]
In what is now the United States and Canada, many Native American and First Nations peoples recognized[155] the existence of more than two genders, such as the Zuñi male-bodied Ła'mana,[156] the Lakota male-bodied winkte,[157] and the Mohave male-bodied alyhaa and female-bodied hwamee.[158] Such people were previously[159] referred to as berdache but are now referred to as Two-Spirit,[160] and their spouses would not necessarily have been regarded as gender-different.[158] In Mexico, the Zapotec culture includes a third gender in the form of the Muxe.[161]

Hijras/transgender persons face huge discrimination in access to public spaces like restaurants, cinemas, shops, malls etc. Further, access to public toilets is also a serious problem they face quite often. Since there are no separate toilet facilities for Hijras/transgender persons, they have to use male toilets where they are prone to sexual assault and harassment. Discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation or gender identity, therefore, impairs equality before law and equal protection of law and violates Article 14 of the Constitution of India.[citation needed]


Bisexuality is romantic or sexual attraction to both males and females. The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation falls along a continuum. In other words, someone does not have to be exclusively homosexual or heterosexual, but can feel varying degrees of both. Sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime–different people realize at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual."[8][14]

The 43rd Parliament saw a shift in political party attitudes to same-sex marriage. In December 2011, the Labor Party’s platform was amended to support same-sex marriage, but to allow Labor MPs to have a conscience vote on the issue. Kevin Rudd reversed his opposition to gay marriage in May 2013, shortly before regaining the Labor leadership. During the election campaign, Rudd promised that if re-elected, his Government would introduce marriage equality legislation within one hundred days of taking office, and Labor MPs would be allowed a conscience vote on the issue.


^ APA task force (1994) "...For sexually mature individuals, the following specifiers may be noted based on the individual's sexual orientation: Sexually Attracted to Males, Sexually Attracted to Females, Sexually Attracted to Both, and Sexually Attracted to Neither..." in DSM-IV: Sections 302.6 and 302.85 Archived 2007-02-11 at the Wayback Machine published by the American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved via Mental Health Matters Archived 2007-04-07 at the Wayback Machine on 2007-04-06.
Same-sex sexual activity is a crime in 70 countries, and can get you a death sentence in nine countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen. And even where these restrictive laws are not actually enforced, their very existence reinforces prejudice against LGBTI people, leaving them feeling like they have no protection against harassment, blackmail and violence.
Political opposition tends to come from social conservatives, often with evangelical Christian ties, who view homosexuality and cross-dressing as signs of immorality. For example, after the court ruled against the unequal age of consent, Hong Kong leader Donald Tsang, a devout Catholic, publicly opposed the court's decision and fought for an appeal until 2006. However, most political parties and individual politicians have tended to avoid making public statements in favour of LGBT rights, although this has slowly begun to change.
When sex is defined legally, it may be defined by any one of several criteria: the XY sex-determination system, the type of gonads, the type of external sexual features, or the person's social identification.[citation needed] Consequently, both transgender and intersex individuals may be legally categorized into confusing gray areas, and could be prohibited from marrying partners of the "opposite" sex or permitted to marry partners of the "same" sex due to legal distinctions.[citation needed] This could result in long-term marriages, as well as recent same-sex marriages, being overturned.[citation needed]
+ UN decl. sign.[58]	 De facto unions in Catalonia (1998),[60] Aragon (1999),[60] Navarre (2000),[60] Castile-La Mancha (2000),[60] Valencia (2001),[544] the Balearic Islands (2001),[545] Madrid (2001),[60] Asturias (2002),[546] Castile and León (2002),[547] Andalusia (2002),[60] the Canary Islands (2003),[60] Extremadura (2003),[60] Basque Country (2003),[60] Cantabria (2005),[548] Galicia (2008)[549] La Rioja (2010),[550] and Murcia (2018),[551][552] and in both autonomous cities; Ceuta (1998)[553] and Melilla (2008).[554]	 Legal since 2005[555]	 Legal since 2005[556][557]		 Bans all anti-gay discrimination[64]

^ A. C. Alegria, Transgender identity and health care: Implications for psychosocial and physical evaluation, in the Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, volume 23, issue 4 (2011), pages 175–182: "Transgender, Umbrella term for persons who do not conform to gender norms in their identity and/or behavior (Meyerowitz, 2002). Transsexual, Subset of transgenderism; persons who feel discordance between natal sex and identity (Meyerowitz, 2002)."
All states that allow same-sex marriage also allow the joint adoption of children by people of the same sex, with the exceptions of Jalisco, Nayarit and Quintana Roo in Mexico. In addition, Andorra and Israel as well as several subnational jurisdictions which do not recognize same-sex marriage nonetheless permit joint adoption by unmarried same-sex couples: Querétaro and Veracruz in Mexico as well as Northern Ireland and Jersey in the United Kingdom. Some additional states allow stepchild adoption by those who are in a same-sex relationship but are unmarried: Croatia, Estonia, Italy (on a case-by-case basis), Slovenia and Switzerland.[514]

On 17 October 2016, a married same-sex couple filed an action of unconstitutionality seeking to recognise same-sex marriages performed abroad.[432] In early November, the case was admitted to the Supreme Court.[433] A challenge seeking to fully legalize same-sex marriage in Panama was introduced before the Supreme Court in March 2017.[434] The Supreme Court heard arguments on both cases in summer 2017.[435]
At the beginning of the gay rights protest movement, news on Cuban prison work camps for homosexuals inspired the Mattachine Society to organize protests at the United Nations and the White House, in 1965.[7] Early on the morning of Saturday June 28, 1969, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons rioted following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.[8][9] The Stonewall Inn was a gay bar which catered to an assortment of patrons, but which was popular with the most marginalized people in the gay community: transvestites, transgender people, effeminate young men, hustlers, and homeless youth.
^ Shim, S. (2006) "...Rush, catering especially to crossdressers and transgenders, is a cafe owned by a 46-year-old man who goes by the female name Lee Cho-rong. "...Many people in South Korea don't really understand the difference between gay and transgender. I'm not gay. I was born a man but eager to live as a woman and be beautiful," said Lee..." in S. Korea in dilemma over transgender citizens right to choose Archived 2007-08-17 at the Wayback Machine from the Yonhap News Agency Archived 2007-07-17 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2007-07-22.
The governments of Costa Rica and Panama have announced that they will fully implement the IACHR ruling.[154][155] Additionally, on 11 January, the president of the Supreme Court of Peru and chairman of the country's judiciary, Duberlí Rodríguez, stated that Peru should abide by the decision.[156] On 29 January 2018, Housing Minister Carlos Bruce estimated that same-sex marriage will be allowed in Peru within two years, and several former Supreme Court judges and lawmakers, notably Indira Huilca, stated that same-sex marriage will soon be legal in Peru, regardless.[157][158] The Peruvian Government, however, has yet to issue a formal decision on the matter.
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