On 17 December 2015, the Congress of Nayarit approved a bill legalizing same-sex marriage.[293] In January 2016, the Mexican Supreme Court declared Jalisco's Civil Code unconstitutional for limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples, effectively legalizing same-sex marriage in the state.[294] On 10 May 2016, the Congress of Campeche passed a same-sex marriage bill.[295] On 18 May 2016, both Michoacán and Morelos passed bills allowing for same-sex marriage to be legal.[296][297] On 25 May 2016, a bill to legalize same-sex marriage in Colima was approved by the state Congress.[298] In July and August 2017, respectively, the Mexican Supreme Court invalidated same-sex marriage bans in the states of Chiapas and Puebla.[299][300] In November 2017, the State Government of Baja California decided to stop enforcing its same-sex marriage ban.

One study surveyed more than 1,500 lesbian, gay and bisexual adults across the nation and found that respondents from the 25 states that have outlawed same-sex marriage had the highest reports of "minority stress"—the chronic social stress that results from minority-group stigmatization—as well as general psychological distress. According to the study, the negative campaigning that comes with a ban is directly responsible for the increased stress. Past research has shown that minority stress is linked to health risks such as risky sexual behavior and substance abuse.[149]

[6] I am wanting to spread the word since I’m convinced my lifestyle can work equally well for millions of other couples. In the process it can help wean us all away from the warrior ideal of maleness, which has been the dominant note for far too long. Lovers seeking to have sex with me are infinitely more attractive than would-be warriors seeking to do battle with me. They are also much healthier for the planet.
Currently, Article 36 of the Constitution of Cuba defines marriage as "the voluntarily established union between a man and a woman".[381] In July 2018, the National Assembly approved revisions to the Constitution which include an amendment to the definition of marriage; "the consensual union of two people, regardless of gender".[382] The constitutional changes will undergo public scrutiny before being put to a referendum on 24 February 2019.[citation needed] In September 2018, following some public concerns and conservative opposition against the possibility of paving the way to legalisation of same-sex marriage in Cuba, In his first interview since taking office in April, President Miguel Díaz-Canel announced his support for same-sex marriage after he told TV Telesur that he supports "marriage between people without any restrictions", and defended the draft constitution, adding that he is in favor of "eliminating any type of discrimination in society".[383][384]
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.[1][2][3] Some transgender people who desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another identify as transsexual.[4][5] Transgender – often shortened as trans – is also an umbrella term: in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex (trans men and trans women), it may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine (people who are genderqueer or non-binary, including bigender, pangender, genderfluid, or agender).[2][6][7] Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or else conceptualize transgender people as a third gender.[8][9] Infrequently, the term transgender is defined very broadly to include cross-dressers,[10] regardless of their gender identity.
Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, after the Roman Empire had come under Christian rule, passive homosexuality was punishable by burning.[50] "Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the Theodosian Code.[51] Under Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death.[52]
Bi-curious has several distinct and sometimes contradictory meanings. It is commonly found in personal ads from those who identify as heterosexual, but are interested in homosexual "experimentation." Such people are commonly suspected—not necessarily correctly—of being homosexuals or bisexuals in denial of their homosexuality. It can also be used to describe someone as being passively bi, bi-permissive, or open to indirect bisexual contact.
In June 2018, arguing that her right to privacy and equality had been violated, amounting to a breach of the Basic Law, and the Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance; a Hong Kong lesbian woman known as "MK" filed a lawsuit against the Hong Kong Government for denying her the right to enter into a civil partnership with her female partner. The High Court heard the case in a preliminary brief 30-minute hearing in August 2018, and it is expected to be heard in the first half of 2019.[33][34][35] In April 2019, a judge rejected a bid by a Hong Kong Catholic diocese and other conservative groups to join litigation and ruled that the court can not arbitrate on social or theological issues and works only on legal considerations, as the counsel for Catholic diocese had argued outcome of court case could lead to ‘reverse discrimination’ and have chilling effect on the church. The case is scheduled to be heard on 28 May 2019.[36][37]
In other countries, decisions on same-sex marriage were effectively turned over to individual states or districts. In 2009 the Federal District (Mexico City), separate from other Mexican jurisdictions, legalized same-sex marriage. Soon after the law went into effect in 2010, Mexico’s Supreme Court ruled that it was constitutional and that all states in the country had to recognize same-sex marriages performed in Mexico City. Gay marriage was later made legal, under the same terms, elsewhere in the country. Similarly, shortly after Brazil legalized same-sex civil unions in 2011, the Supreme Federal Court ruled that sexual orientation could not be a pretext for denying a couple the legal protections of marriage, although it stopped short of specifically authorizing same-sex marriage at the federal level. In response, several Brazilian states separately opted to allow for same-sex marriages, which were considered valid throughout Brazil, before the National Council of Justice approved a resolution in 2013 ensuring that such unions could be registered anywhere in the country. Also in 2013, the Australian Capital Territory became the first jurisdiction in Australia to pass a law permitting the marriage of same-sex couples, although Australia’s High Court later struck down the law within days of its having taken effect. In 2017 a majority of Australians voted for same-sex marriage in a nonbinding referendum. Shortly thereafter the country’s Parliament passed legislation legalizing same-sex marriage, and it was signed into law in December 2017.
A term used to describe some people whose gender expression is different from conventional expectations of masculinity and femininity. Please note that not all gender non-conforming people identify as transgender; nor are all transgender people gender non-conforming. Many people have gender expressions that are not entirely conventional – that fact alone does not make them transgender. Many transgender men and women have gender expressions that are conventionally masculine or feminine. Simply being transgender does not make someone gender non-conforming. The term is not a synonym for transgender or transsexual and should only be used if someone self-identifies as gender non-conforming.

On July 22, 2005, the first Latvian gay pride march took place in Riga, surrounded by protesters. It had previously been banned by the Riga City Council, and the then-Prime Minister of Latvia, Aigars Kalvītis, opposed the event, stating Riga should "not promote things like that", however a court decision allowed the march to go ahead.[78] In 2006, LGBT people in Latvia attempted a Parade but were assaulted by "No Pride" protesters, an incident sparking a storm of international media pressure and protests from the European Parliament at the failure of the Latvian authorities to adequately protect the Parade so that it could proceed.


On 15 November 2011, the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists, as a licensing body of professional psychiatrists in Hong Kong, published an announcement stating that homosexuality is not an illness and there is no scientifically proven evidence to support the attempts to change one's sexual orientation.[54] Until February 2012, the announcement has not been uploaded onto the College's website or published in any professional journals; it is, however, available in electronic pdf format upon request. The Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists is the very first professional authority in Asia that explicitly and publicly opined their professional standing on issues regarding homosexuality and treatments altering one's sexual orientation.[55]
Opposition to same-sex marriage is based on claims such as that homosexuality is unnatural and abnormal, that the recognition of same-sex unions will promote homosexuality in society, and that children are better off when raised by opposite-sex couples.[8] These claims are refuted by science, which shows that homosexuality is natural and normal, that sexual orientation is not a choice, and that the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or even better than the children of opposite-sex couples.[9]

In March 2011, Toronto mayor Rob Ford said that he would not allow city funding for the 2011 Toronto Pride Parade if organizers allowed the controversial anti-Israel group Queers Against Israeli Apartheid (QuAIA) march again that year. "Taxpayers dollars should not go toward funding hate speech", Ford said.[178] In April 2011, QuAIA announced that it would not participate in the Toronto Pride Parade.[179]


On 21 February 2017, Minister for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs, and Civil Liberties Helena Dalli said that she was preparing a bill to legalise same-sex marriage.[272] The bill was presented to Parliament on 5 July 2017.[273] The bill's last reading took place in Parliament on 12 July 2017, where it was approved 66-1. It was signed into law and published in the Government Gazette on 1 August 2017.[274] Malta became the 14th country in Europe to legalise same-sex marriage.[275][276]
Use of the rainbow flag by the gay community began in 1978 when it first appeared in the San Francisco Gay and Lesbian Freedom Day Parade. Borrowing symbolism from the hippie movement and black civil rights groups, San Francisco artist Gilbert Baker designed the rainbow flag in response to a need for a symbol that could be used year after year. Baker and thirty volunteers hand-stitched and hand-dyed two huge prototype flags for the parade. The flags had eight stripes, each color representing a component of the community.
Maryland (1 January) São Paulo (16 February) Ceará (15 March) Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians (15 March) Paraná (26 March) Mato Grosso do Sul (2 April) Rondônia (26 April) Santa Catarina (29 April) Paraíba (29 April) Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians (8 May) Brazil [nationwide] (16 May) France (18 May) Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel (24 June) California (28 June) Delaware (1 July) Minnesota (1 August) Rhode Island (1 August) Grand Portage Band of Chippewa (1 August) Uruguay (5 August) New Zealand (19 August) Doña Ana County, New Mexico (21 August) Santa Fe County, New Mexico (23 August) Bernalillo County, New Mexico (26 August) San Miguel County, New Mexico (27 August) Valencia County, New Mexico (27 August) Taos County, New Mexico (28 August) Los Alamos County, New Mexico (4 September) Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (5 September) Grant County, New Mexico (9 September) Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes (18 October) New Jersey (21 October) Blue Lake Rancheria (1 November) Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe (15 November) Hawaii (2 December) New Mexico [statewide] (19 December)
On November 18, 2003, the Massachusetts Supreme Court became the first to rule that the state’s ban on same sex marriage was unconstitutional. Once this decision in the case of Good ridge v Department of Public Health was handed down, the state of Massachusetts began issuing marriage licenses to same sex couples. This landmark ruling by a state supreme court was the result of a lawsuit filed in 2001 by a group called the Gay & Lesbian Advocates and Defenders (“GLAD”) on behalf of seven same sex couples, each of which were established, long term relationships. Four of these couples were raising a total of five children.

^ Ring, Trudy (20 December 2012). "Newt Gingrich: Marriage Equality Inevitable, OK". The Advocate. Los Angeles. He [Newt Gingrich] noted to HuffPo that he not only has a lesbian half-sister, LGBT rights activist Candace Gingrich, but has gay friends who've gotten married in Iowa, where their unions are legal. Public opinion has shifted in favor of marriage equality, he said, and the Republican Party could end up on the wrong side of history if it continues to go against the tide.
Guam 165,124 (not included in population total) June 5, 2015 June 9, 2015 Binding federal court precedent → Actions of territorial officials → Federal court decision → Legislative statute Attorney General Elizabeth Barrett-Anderson deferred to the controlling precedent set by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in Latta v. Otter, ordering that marriage licenses for same-sex couples be processed immediately beginning April 15, 2015.[62] District Court of Guam ruling in Aguero v. Calvo upholding the earlier decision by the Ninth Circuit.[63] Marriage Equality Act, incorporating the decision, passed by the Guam Legislature went into effect on August 27, 2015.[64]
The first two decades of the 21st century saw same-sex marriage receive support from prominent figures in the civil rights movement, including Coretta Scott King, John Lewis, Julian Bond, and Mildred Loving.[360] In May 2011, national public support for same-sex marriage rose above 50% for the first time.[361] In May 2012, the NAACP, the leading African-American civil rights organization, declared its support for same-sex marriage and stated that it is a civil right.[31] In June 2013, the Supreme Court of the United States struck down DOMA for violating the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in the landmark civil rights case of United States v. Windsor, leading to federal recognition of same-sex marriage, with federal benefits for married couples connected to either the state of residence or the state in which the marriage was solemnized. In May 2015, national public support for same-sex marriage rose to 60% for the first time.[362] In June 2015, the Supreme Court ruled in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges that the fundamental right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
registered partnership proposed 2019 Constitutional ban since 1997[409] (Article 18 of the Constitution is generally interpreted as limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples[410][411][412][413][414][415])[b] LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[418] Bans some anti-gay discrimination[64] Transgender people allowed to change gender but require undergoing medical treatment such as HRT or surgery. No provisions for nonbinary people.
In upholding gay marriage bans in Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio and Tennessee on Nov. 6, 2014, 6th US District Court of Appeals Judge Jeffrey S. Sutton wrote that "marriage has long been a social institution defined by relationships between men and women. So long defined, the tradition is measured in millennia, not centuries or decades. So widely shared, the tradition until recently had been adopted by all governments and major religions of the world." [117] In the Oct. 15, 1971 decision Baker v. Nelson, the Supreme Court of Minnesota found that "the institution of marriage as a union of man and woman, uniquely involving the procreation and rearing of children within a family, is as old as the book of Genesis." [49] John F. Harvey, MA, STL, late Catholic priest, wrote in July 2009 that "Throughout the history of the human race the institution of marriage has been understood as the complete spiritual and bodily communion of one man and one woman." [18] [109]
Societies have resolved the intertwined issues of sexuality, reproduction, and marriage in myriad ways. Their responses regarding the morality, desirability, and administrative perquisites of same-sex partnerships have been equally diverse. Notably, however, by the beginning of the 21st century most countries opted for one of only three legal resolutions to these intersecting problems: to ignore same-sex partnerships, to criminalize them, or to grant them a status similar or equal to that of heterosexual marriage. Many countries have yet to reach a consensus on these issues. (See also marriage law.)

Oglala Sioux Tribe (25 January) Stockbridge-Munsee Community Band of Mohican Indians (2 February) Greenland (1 April) Colombia (28 April) Tulalip Tribes of Washington (6 May) Jalisco [statewide] (12 May) Campeche (20 May) Colima (12 June) Michoacán (23 June) Morelos (5 July) Isle of Man (22 July) San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (18 September) British Antarctic Territory (13 October) Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (3 November) Cherokee Nation (9 December) Gibraltar (15 December)

Ayoni or non-vaginal sex of all types are punishable in the Arthashastra. Homosexual acts are however treated as a smaller offence punishable by a fine while unlawful heterosexual sex have a much harsher punishment. The Dharmsastras especially the later ones prescribed against non-vaginal sex like the Vashistha Dharmasutra. The Yājñavalkya Smṛti prescribes fines for such acts including those with other men. Manusmriti prescribes light punishments for such acts.[15][16] Vanita states that the verses about punishment for a sex between female and a maiden is due to its strong emphasis on a maiden's sexual purity.[17]

Luxembourg (1 January) Miami-Dade County, Florida (5 January) Florida [statewide] (6 January) Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska (24 February) Pitcairn Islands (14 May) Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians (15 May) Guam (9 June) Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (10 June) Chihuahua (12 June) United States [nationwide] (26 June) Northern Mariana Islands (30 June) Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians (7 July) United States Virgin Islands (9 July) Puerto Rico (13 July) Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (21 July) White Mountain Apache Tribe (9 September) Ireland (16 November) Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon (18 November) Nayarit (23 December)
In June 2018, arguing that her right to privacy and equality had been violated, amounting to a breach of the Basic Law, and the Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance; a Hong Kong lesbian woman known as "MK" filed a lawsuit against the Hong Kong Government for denying her the right to enter into a civil partnership with her female partner. The High Court heard the case in a preliminary brief 30-minute hearing in August 2018, and it is expected to be heard in the first half of 2019.[33][34][35] In April 2019, a judge rejected a bid by a Hong Kong Catholic diocese and other conservative groups to join litigation and ruled that the court can not arbitrate on social or theological issues and works only on legal considerations, as the counsel for Catholic diocese had argued outcome of court case could lead to ‘reverse discrimination’ and have chilling effect on the church. The case is scheduled to be heard on 28 May 2019.[36][37]
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