Featuring the symbol for the infinite numberpi, which shares the first letter of "polyamory," this flag celebrates the infinite selection of partners available to polyamorous people. The letter is gold to represent the emotional attachment we have with others as friends and romantic partnerss, rather than just our carnal relationships. Find out more here.
As the Supreme Court was deliberating on the two cases, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled on 9 January 2018 that countries signatory to the American Convention on Human Rights must legalise same-sex marriage. On 16 January, the Panamanian Government welcomed the decision. Vice President Isabel Saint Malo, speaking on behalf of the Government, announced that the country would fully abide by the ruling. Official notices, requiring compliance with the ruling, were sent out to various governmental departments that same day.[155][154]
[6] I am wanting to spread the word since I’m convinced my lifestyle can work equally well for millions of other couples. In the process it can help wean us all away from the warrior ideal of maleness, which has been the dominant note for far too long. Lovers seeking to have sex with me are infinitely more attractive than would-be warriors seeking to do battle with me. They are also much healthier for the planet.
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Most of the world religions have at some points in their histories opposed same-sex marriage for one or more of the following stated reasons: homosexual acts violate natural law or divine intentions and are therefore immoral; passages in sacred texts condemn homosexual acts; and religious tradition recognizes only the marriage of one man and one woman as valid. In the early 21st century, however, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all spoke with more than one voice on this issue. Orthodox Judaism opposed same-sex marriage, while the Reform, Reconstructionist, and Conservative traditions allowed for it. Most Christian denominations opposed it, while the United Church of Christ, the United Church of Canada, and the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) took a more favourable stand or allowed individual churches autonomy in the matter. The Unitarian Universalist churches and the gay-oriented Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches fully accepted same-sex marriage. Hinduism, without a sole leader or hierarchy, allowed some Hindus to accept the practice while others were virulently opposed. The three major schools of Buddhism—Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana—stressed the attainment of enlightenment as a basic theme; most Buddhist literature therefore viewed all marriage as a choice between the two individuals involved.

Cook County, Illinois (21 February) England and Wales (13 March) Oregon (19 May) Pennsylvania (20 May) Illinois [statewide] (1 June) Akrotiri and Dhekelia (3 June) British Indian Ocean Territory (3 June) Puyallup Tribe of Indians (9 July) Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa (16 July) Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians (10 August) Coahuila (17 September) Oklahoma (6 October) Virginia (6 October) Utah (6 October) Indiana (6 October) Wisconsin (6 October) Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa (6 October) Colorado (7 October) West Virginia (9 October) Nevada (9 October) Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes (9 October) North Carolina (10 October) Alaska (12 October) Idaho (15 October) Arizona (17 October) Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation (17 October) Pascua Yaqui Tribe (17 October) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (17 October) San Carlos Apache Tribe (17 October) Yavapai-Apache Nation (17 October) Wyoming (21 October) St. Louis, Missouri (5 November) St. Louis County, Missouri (6 November) Jackson County, Missouri (7 November) Douglas County, Kansas (12 November) Sedgwick County, Kansas (12 November) Eastern Shoshone Tribe (14 November) Northern Arapaho Tribe (14 November) Montana (19 November) Blackfeet Nation (19 November) South Carolina (20 November) Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (13 December) Scotland (16 December) South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
^ Jump up to: a b Reisner, Sari L; Conron, Kerith; Scout, Nfn; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Haneuse, Sebastien; Austin, S. Bryn (2014). "Comparing In-Person and Online Survey Respondents in the U.S. National Transgender Discrimination Survey: Implications for Transgender Health Research". LGBT Health. 1 (2): 98–106. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2013.0018. PMID 26789619. Transgender was defined broadly to cover those who transition from one gender to another as well as those who may not choose to socially, medically, or legally fully transition, including cross-dressers, people who consider themselves to be genderqueer, androgynous, and…
On June 30, 2016, the United States Department of Defense removed the ban that prohibited transgender people from openly serving in the US military.[112] On July 27, 2017, President Donald Trump tweeted that transgender Americans will not be allowed to serve "in any capacity" in the United States Armed Forces.[113] Later that day, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Joseph Dunford announced, "there will be no modifications to the current policy until the president’s direction has been received by the Secretary of Defense and the secretary has issued implementation guidance."[114]
The gay community has created its own vibrant culture. By reducing the differences in opportunities and experiences between gay and heterosexual people, this unique culture may cease to exist. Lesbian activist M.V. Lee Badgett, PhD, Director of the Center for Public Policy and Administration at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, stated that for many gay activists "marriage means adopting heterosexual forms of family and giving up distinctively gay family forms and perhaps even gay and lesbian culture." [14] Paula Ettelbrick, JD, Professor of Law and Women's Studies, wrote in 1989, "Marriage runs contrary to two of the primary goals of the lesbian and gay movement: the affirmation of gay identity and culture and the validation of many forms of relationships." [15]
An older term that originated in the medical and psychological communities. Still preferred by some people who have permanently changed - or seek to change - their bodies through medical interventions, including but not limited to hormones and/or surgeries. Unlike transgender, transsexual is not an umbrella term. Many transgender people do not identify as transsexual and prefer the word transgender. It is best to ask which term a person prefers. If preferred, use as an adjective: transsexual woman or transsexual man.
After the November 1978 assassination of San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and openly gay Supervisor Harvey Milk and the subsequent lenient sentence given to their killer, former Supervisor Dan White, the Rainbow Flag began to be used in San Francisco as a general symbol of the gay community. San Francisco-based Paramount Flag Co. began selling seven-striped (top to bottom: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet) flags from its Polk Street retail store, which was located in a large gay neighborhood. These flags were surplus stock which had originally been made for the the International Order of Rainbow for Girls, a Masonic organization for young women. When Baker approached Paramount to make flags for the 1979 Gay Freedom Day Parade, Paramount informed Baker that fabric for hot pink was not available for mass production, and Baker dropped the hot pink stripe.
Massachusetts, which became the first US state to legalize gay marriage in 2004, had the lowest divorce rate in the country in 2008. Its divorce rate declined 21% between 2003 and 2008. Alaska, which altered its constitution to prohibit gay marriage in 1998, saw a 17.2% increase in its divorce rate over the same period. The seven states with the highest divorce rates between 2003 and 2008 all had constitutional prohibitions to gay marriage. [2]
^ Jump up to: a b Craig J. Forsyth, Heith Copes (2014). Encyclopedia of Social Deviance. Sage Publications. p. 740. ISBN 978-1483364698. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016. Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identities, gender expressions, and/or behaviors are different from those culturally associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth.
The Immigration Department appealed the ruling to the Court of Final Appeal. The court handed down its ruling on 4 July 2018, finding in favour of the plaintiff and mandating immigration authorities to grant same-sex partners spousal visas that were previously only available only to heterosexual couples.[26] The panel of judges, led by Chief Justice Geoffrey Ma Tao-li, held that the “policy [of not granting a visa] is counterproductive and plainly not rationally connected to advancing [any] ‘talent’ aim" and rejected the immigration director’s argument that civil union partnerships differed from marriage, saying it was based on a “shaky foundation [and]...hardly satisfactory”.[26] The government stated it respected the court's ruling and would study it in detail.[26]
The reformer Thomas Müntzer (1489–1525) connected socially revolutionary claims with his preaching of the gospel. He is often portrayed with a rainbow flag in his hand. The Thomas Müntzer statue in the German town of Stolberg also shows him holding a rainbow flag in his hand. In the German Peasants' War of the 16th century, the rainbow flag together with the peasants' boot ("Bundschuh") was used as the sign of a new era, of hope and of social change. The choice of the rainbow in the form of a flag harkens back to the rainbow as a symbol of biblical promise. According to the Bible, God first created the rainbow as a sign to Noah that there would never again be a worldwide flood,[19][20] also known as the Rainbow covenant.

After 2008, the numbers grew rapidly. In 2009 around five thousand people participated in the gay parade under the slogan "Love out loud" (Chinese: 同志愛很大). In 2010, despite bad weather conditions the Taiwan gay parade "Out and Vote" attracted more than 30,000 people, making it the largest such event in Asia. In 2017, around 123,000 people participated in the gay parade.[citation needed]


Anthropologists have struggled to determine a definition of marriage that absorbs commonalities of the social construct across cultures around the world.[19][20] Many proposed definitions have been criticized for failing to recognize the existence of same-sex marriage in some cultures, including in more than 30 African cultures, such as the Kikuyu and Nuer.[20][21][22]

Along with several gay nightclubs, LGBT pride festivals occur annually, as well as other social events including the Hong Kong Lesbian & Gay Film Festival. On each International Day Against Homophobia, a procession is held through the street of Hong Kong to show solidarity. The first IDAHO procession was held in 2005. Political involvement has also become more common in recent years. Several prominent legislators have attend the IDAHO procession and gay pride to show solidarity with the LGBT community.[40]


On June 26, 2015, the US Supreme Court ruled that gay marriage is a right protected by the US Constitution in all 50 states. Prior to their decision, same-sex marriage was already legal in 37 states and Washington DC, but was banned in the remaining 13. US public opinion had shifted significantly over the years, from 27% approval of gay marriage in 1996 to 55% in 2015, the year it became legal throughout the United States, to 61% in 2019.
In Istanbul (since 2003) and in Ankara (since 2008) gay marches were being held each year with an increasing participation. Gay pride march in Istanbul started with 30 people in 2003 and in 2010 the participation became 5,000. The pride March 2011 and 2012 were attended by more than 15,000 participants. On June 30, 2013, the pride parade attracted almost 100,000 people.[113] The protesters were joined by Gezi Park protesters, making the 2013 Istanbul Pride the biggest pride ever held in Turkey.[114] On the same day, the first Izmir Pride took place with 2000 participants.[115] Another pride took place in Antalya.[116] Politicians of the biggest opposition party, CHP and another opposition party, BDP also lent their support to the demonstration.[117] The pride march in Istanbul does not receive any support of the municipality or the government.[118]
In autumn 2004 several gay businesses in London were ordered by Westminster City Council to remove the rainbow flag from their premises, as its display required planning permission.[citation needed] When one shop applied for permission, the Planning sub-committee refused the application on the chair's casting vote (May 19, 2005), a decision condemned by gay councillors in Westminster and the then Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone. In November the council announced a reversal of policy, stating that most shops and bars would be allowed to fly the rainbow flag without planning permission.
Shortly after winning the 2016 election, President Donald Trump said he's "fine" with same-sex marriage and believes it to be settled law: "It's law. It was settled in the Supreme Court. I mean, it's done."[112] This somewhat contrasted with a previous statement he made in June 2015, after Obergefell v. Hodges, in which he said he's personally for "traditional marriage" and that he believed same-sex marriage should be left to the states.[113] In that same statement, however, Trump admitted that overturning Obergefell is not realistic. Several of his federal appointments have also, subsequently, announced they will uphold same-sex marriage and enforce the Supreme Court ruling, while still being personally against same-sex marriage,[114] namely Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos.[115]
Some of the opponents of same-sex marriage are religious groups such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Catholic Church, and the Southern Baptist Convention, all of which desire for marriage to remain restricted to opposite-sex marriages.[97] However, there are faith-based supporters of LGBT equality within every faith group and there are LGBT people of faith within every faith group.[98]
The most prominent supporters of same-sex marriage are human rights and civil rights organizations as well as the medical and scientific communities, while the most prominent opponents are religious groups. The ruling of the Supreme Court in Obergefell occurred following decades of consistently rising national public support for same-sex marriage in the United States, with support continuing to rise thereafter.
^ Shim, S. (2006) "...Rush, catering especially to crossdressers and transgenders, is a cafe owned by a 46-year-old man who goes by the female name Lee Cho-rong. "...Many people in South Korea don't really understand the difference between gay and transgender. I'm not gay. I was born a man but eager to live as a woman and be beautiful," said Lee..." in S. Korea in dilemma over transgender citizens right to choose Archived 2007-08-17 at the Wayback Machine from the Yonhap News Agency Archived 2007-07-17 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2007-07-22.
Jurisdiction over legal classification of sex in Canada is assigned to the provinces and territories. This includes legal change of gender classification. On June 19, 2017 Bill C-16, after having passed the legislative process in the House of Commons of Canada and the Senate of Canada, became law upon receiving Royal Assent which put it into immediate force.[104][105][106] The law updated the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code to include "gender identity and gender expression" as protected grounds from discrimination, hate publications and advocating genocide. The bill also added "gender identity and expression" to the list of aggravating factors in sentencing, where the accused commits a criminal offence against an individual because of those personal characteristics. Similar transgender laws also exist in all the provinces and territories.[citation needed]

...the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) sexual identity is a complex and often difficult process. Unlike members of other minority groups (e.g., ethnic and racial minorities), most LGB individuals are not raised in a community of similar others from whom they learn about their identity and who reinforce and support that identity. Rather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality.[8]


+ UN decl. sign.[58]	Concubinage union since 2008[289]	 Legal since 2013[290]	 Legal since 2009[291]	 Since 2009[292]	 Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[293] Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 2017	 Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial order required since 2009.[294] Self-determination since 2018.

No matter how they label themselves, many people do not entirely conform to a single, rigid gender definition with most people having traits that don't exactly fit the profile. Even more importantly, some of the traditional gender differences between men and women may be slight. Due to changes in social attitudes, general changes in the perception of gender also occurs over time. A trait considered masculine in one generation may be a feminine norm in the next. A woman wearing pants, for instance, would have been considered manly at one time. And though it may have been unusual in the not-too-distant past, many women earn equal to or more than their husbands today, while their husbands perform more of the household and childcare duties once assigned to women. Ultimately, gender is a shifting ground on which each of us stands.
Same-sex marriage is not legal in Japan. Article 24 of the Japanese Constitution states that "Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis."[425] Article 24 was created to establish the equality of both sexes in marriage, in opposition to the pre-war legal situation whereby the husband/father was legally defined as the head of household and marriage require permission from the male head of the family.
Dr. Alfred Kinsey's 1948 work Sexual Behavior in the Human Male found that "46% of the male population had engaged in both heterosexual and homosexual activities, or "reacted to" persons of both sexes, in the course of their adult lives".[13] The Kinsey Institute has stated that "Kinsey said in both the Male and Female volumes that it was impossible to determine the number of persons who are "homosexual" or "heterosexual". It was only possible to determine behavior at any given time".[13] Kinsey's book, and its companion Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, have received vocal criticism for their findings and methodology.[14][15][16][17] The New York Times called his research "conscientious and comprehensive"[18] and Professor Martin Duberman called it "skillful" and "a monumental endeavor".[19]
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