Psychiatrist John F. Oliven of Columbia University coined the term transgender in his 1965 reference work Sexual Hygiene and Pathology, writing that the term which had previously been used, transsexualism, "is misleading; actually, 'transgenderism' is meant, because sexuality is not a major factor in primary transvestism."[21][22] The term transgender was then popularized with varying definitions by various transgender, transsexual, and transvestite people, including Virginia Prince,[4] who used it in the December 1969 issue of Transvestia, a national magazine for cross dressers she founded.[23] By the mid-1970s both trans-gender and trans people were in use as umbrella terms,[note 1] and 'transgenderist' was used to describe people who wanted to live cross-gender without sex reassignment surgery (SRS).[24] By 1976, transgenderist was abbreviated as TG in educational materials.[25]
This new flag seeks to take Philadelphia's inclusive approach a step further. Daniel Quasar, who identifies as queer and nonbinary, designed this flag. The white, pink, and light blue reflect the colors of the transgender flag, while the brown and black stripes represent people of color and those lost to AIDS. “When the Pride flag was recreated in the last year to include both black/brown stripes as well as the trans stripes included this year, I wanted to see if there could be more emphasis in the design of the flag to give it more meaning,” Quasar explained on his Kickstarter.
There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual orientation.[35] Proposed reasons include a combination of genetic factors[36][37] and environmental factors (including fraternal birth order, where the number of older brothers a boy has increases the chances of homosexuality; specific prenatal hormone exposure, where hormones play a role in determining sexual orientation as they do with sex differentiation;[38][39] and prenatal stress on the mother).[40][41][42]

The first gay pride parade in Mexico occurred in Mexico City in 1979, and it was attended by over a thousand people.[139] Ever since, it has been held annually under different slogans, with the purpose of bringing visibility to sexual minorities, raising awareness about HIV/AIDS, fighting homophobia, and advocating for LGBT rights, including the legalization of civil unions, same-sex marriages, and LGBT adoption. In 2009, more than 350,000 people attended the gay pride march in Mexico City—100,000 more than the previous year.[140] Guadalajara has also held their own Guadalajara Gay Pride every June since 1996, and it is the second largest gay pride parade in the country.[141] Gay pride parades have also spread to the cities of Monterrey,[142] León, Guanajuato,[143] Puebla,[144] Tijuana,[145] Toluca,[146] Cancun,[147] Acapulco,[148] Mérida,[149] Xalapa,[150] Cuernavaca,[151] Chihuahua,[152] Matamoros,[153] Saltillo,[154] Mazatlan,[155] Los Cabos,[156] Puerto Vallarta,[157] and Hermosillo, among others.
In November 2017, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the civil status law must allow a third gender option.[102] Thus officially recognising "third sex" meaning that birth certificates will not have blank gender entries for intersex people. The ruling came after an intersex person, who is neither a man nor woman according to chromosomal analysis, brought a legal challenge after attempting to change their registered sex to "inter" or divers.[103].
Civil unions in New Jersey (2007),[163] Illinois (2011),[164] Hawaii (2012),[165] and Colorado (2013)[166] Legal in some states since 2004, nationwide since 2015[167] Legal in some states since 1993, nationwide since 2016[168] "Don't ask, don't tell" policy was abolished in 2011, meaning that since then LGB people have been allowed to serve openly in the military.[169]
There have also been significant developments in the United States where the Supreme Court recently gave two decisions which have had an impact on same-sex marriage. One of them cleared the way for same-sex marriage in California, the 12th state to recognise same-sex marriage, and the other struck down the Congress’ Defense of Marriage Act, which provided that in all federal rules and rulings, the word ‘marriage’ means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife. According to civil rights lawyer, Father Frank Brennan these decisions will have an impact beyond the United States.

In December 2012, the state of São Paulo likewise had same-sex marriage legalized by court order.[194] Same-sex marriages also became equalized in relation to opposite-sex ones between January 2012 and April 2013 by court order in Alagoas, Ceará, Espírito Santo, the Federal District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraíba, Paraná, Piauí, Rondônia, Santa Catarina and Sergipe, and in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, a municipality in Minas Gerais. In Rio de Janeiro, the State Court facilitated its realization by district judges in agreement with the equalization (instead of ordering notaries to accept same-sex marriages in demand as all others).[195]

Article 12 of the European Convention on Human Rights states that: "Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right",[147] not limiting marriage to those in a heterosexual relationship. However, the ECHR stated in Schalk and Kopf v Austria that this provision was intended to limit marriage to heterosexual relationships, as it used the term "men and women" instead of "everyone".[142]
Pawelski, J. G.; Perrin, E. C.; Foy, J. M.; Allen, C. E.; Crawford, J. E.; Del Monte, M.; Kaufman, M.; Klein, J. D.; Smith, K.; Springer, S.; Tanner, J. L.; Vickers, D. L. (2006). "The Effects of Marriage, Civil Union, and Domestic Partnership Laws on the Health and Well-being of Children". Pediatrics. 118 (1): 349–364. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1279. PMID 16818585. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
Use of the rainbow flag by the gay community began in 1978 when it first appeared in the San Francisco Gay and Lesbian Freedom Day Parade. Borrowing symbolism from the hippie movement and black civil rights groups, San Francisco artist Gilbert Baker designed the rainbow flag in response to a need for a symbol that could be used year after year. Baker and thirty volunteers hand-stitched and hand-dyed two huge prototype flags for the parade. The flags had eight stripes, each color representing a component of the community.
Legal recognition of same-sex marriage in Canada followed a series of constitutional challenges based on the equality provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In the first such case, Halpern v. Canada (Attorney General), same-sex marriage ceremonies performed in Ontario on 14 January 2001 were subsequently validated when the common law, mixed-sex definition of marriage was held to be unconstitutional. Similar rulings had legalized same-sex marriage in eight provinces and one territory when the 2005 Civil Marriage Act defined marriage throughout Canada as "the lawful union of two persons to the exclusion of all others".
registered partnership proposed 2019 Constitutional ban since 1997[409] (Article 18 of the Constitution is generally interpreted as limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples[410][411][412][413][414][415])[b] LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[418] Bans some anti-gay discrimination[64] Transgender people allowed to change gender but require undergoing medical treatment such as HRT or surgery. No provisions for nonbinary people.
On December 10, 2005, the First LGBT Freedom March, with the theme "CPR: Celebrating Pride and Rights" was held along the streets of España and Quiapo in Manila, Philippines. Concerned that the prevailing economic and political crisis in the country at the time presented threats to freedoms and liberties of all Filipinos, including sexual and gender minorities, LGBT individuals and groups, non-government organizations and members of various communities and sectors organized the LGBT Freedom March calling for systemic and structural change. At historic Plaza Miranda, in front of Quiapo Church, despite the pouring rain, a program with performances and speeches depicting LGBT pride was held soon after the march. On December 6, 2014, Philippines will be celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Metro Manila Pride March with the theme: Come Out For Love Kasi Pag-ibig Pa Rin (Come Out For Love Because It's Still All About Love). The theme is a reminder of the love and passion that started and sustained 20 years of taking to the streets for the recognition and respect of LGBT lives as human lives. It is also a celebration of and an invitation for families, friends, and supporters of LGBT people to claim Metro Manila Pride as a safe space to voice their support for the community, for the LGBT human rights advocacy, and for the people they love and march with every year.
Post-Obergefell, six states have, on occasion, attempted to deny same-sex couples full adoption rights to varying degrees. In Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, and Wisconsin, same-sex couples have been met with rejection when trying to get both parents' names listed on the birth certificate. In V.L. v. E.L., Alabama's highest court attempted to void an adoption decree obtained by a same-sex couple in Georgia, but the U.S. Supreme Court reversed, restoring joint custody to the adoptive mother on March 7, 2016. Mississippi had once banned same-sex couples from adopting, but the law requiring this was ruled unconstitutional by the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi on March 31, 2016. With that ruling, adoption by same-sex couples became legal in all fifty states.[51][52]
Some in the homosexual community accuse those who self-identify as bisexual of duplicity, believing they are really homosexuals who engage in heterosexual activity merely to remain socially acceptable. They may be accused of "not doing their part" in gaining acceptance of "true" homosexuality. Some homosexual people may also suspect that a self-described bisexual is merely a homosexual in the initial stage of questioning their presumed heterosexuality, and will eventually accept that they are homosexual; this is expressed by a glib saying in gay culture: "Bi now, gay later." These situations can and do take place, but do not appear to be true of the majority of self-described bisexuals. Nonetheless, bisexuals do sometimes experience lesser acceptance from homosexual people, because of their declared orientation. Bisexual experimentation is also common in adolescents of every sexual orientation.
The first Italian event specifically associated with international celebrations of Gay Pride was the sixth congress of Fuori! held in Turin in late June 1978 and included a week of films on gay subjects.[77]:103 Episodes of violence against homosexuals were frequent in Italy, such as in the summer of 1979 when two young gay men were killed in Livorno. In Pisa in November of that year, the Orfeo Collective [it] organized the first march against anti-gay violence. Around 500 gay and lesbian participants attended, and this remained the largest gathering of the kind until 1994.[77]:122–124

Oglala Sioux Tribe (25 January) Stockbridge-Munsee Community Band of Mohican Indians (2 February) Greenland (1 April) Colombia (28 April) Tulalip Tribes of Washington (6 May) Jalisco [statewide] (12 May) Campeche (20 May) Colima (12 June) Michoacán (23 June) Morelos (5 July) Isle of Man (22 July) San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (18 September) British Antarctic Territory (13 October) Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (3 November) Cherokee Nation (9 December) Gibraltar (15 December)
Ability or desire to create offspring has never been a qualification for marriage. From 1970 through 2012 roughly 30% of all US households were married couples without children, and in 2012, married couples without children outnumbered married couples with children by 9%. [96] 6% of married women aged 15-44 are infertile, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [97] In a 2010 Pew Research Center survey, both married and unmarried people rated love, commitment, and companionship higher than having children as "very important" reasons to get married, and only 44% of unmarried people and 59% of married people rated having children as a very important reason. [42] Several US presidents never had their own biological children, including George Washington, often referred to as "the Father of Our Country." [9] [12] As US Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan noted, a marriage license would be granted to a couple in which the man and woman are both over the age of 55, even though "there are not a lot of children coming out of that marriage." [88]

Encompassing the fluctuations and the flexibility of gender in genderfluid people, the flag features colors associated with femininity, masculinity, and everything in between. The pink stands for femininity. The white represents the lack of gender. The purple represents the combination of masculinity and femininity. The black symbolizes all genders, including third genders. The blue reflects masculinity.


“LGBT”有许多变体用法,有些只是改變其字母排列順序。“LGBT”和“GLBT”是最常用的两种[22]。在不包含跨性別者時,它就變成“LGB”[22][25]。它也可能加入兩個“Q”来代表酷兒與疑性恋,變成“LGBTQ”或“LGBTQQ”;加入一個“I”來代表雙性人,變成“LGBTI”;加入另一個“T”來代表變性人,變成“LGBTT”;加入一個“A”來代表支持同性戀的異性戀盟友(straight allies),變成“LGBTA”[26][27][28][29][30][8][31][32]。如果以上全部都包含進去的話,就變成“LGBTTIQQA”,不過這種用法極為少見。臺灣則有“LGBTSQQ”的用法,其中的“S”指的是「直同志(Tonzhi-Friendly Straight)」。泛性恋和酷儿经常被归类在双性恋之下;变性人和双性人被部分人归类在跨性别之下,但这种归类遭到变性人和双性人的反对。各种变体的字母顺序并不统一,除了上文提到的以“LGBT”或“GLBT”两种,也有其它以任意顺序排列的情况,但不如前两种常见[22]。LGBT一词的各种变体并没有任何政治意味,但是反应了使用者对不同群体或个体的偏好[33]。
I disagree with something that anonymous wrote (the really long post). Anonymous wrote that "you are not and can not be assigned a sex." Uh, it happens each time a baby is born. If the parents haven't found out ahead of time, the medical personnel look at the outer genitalia and pick boy or girl from what they see. Finding out boy or girl before that is still looking at just outer genitalia using a sonogram. When things aren't apparent at first glance is when things get interesting. Unfortunately years ago sex was assigned without further testing. At least these days there is DNA testing.
On 4 February 2014, the Scottish Parliament overwhelmingly passed legislation legalising same-sex marriage.[349] The bill received royal assent as the Marriage and Civil Partnership (Scotland) Act 2014 on 12 March 2014.[350][351] The law took effect on 16 December 2014, with the first same-sex weddings occurring for those converting their civil partnerships into marriage.[352][353]
Prior to Obergefell, same-sex marriage was legal to at least some degree in thirty-eight states, one territory (Guam) and the District of Columbia; of the states, Missouri, Kansas, and Alabama had restrictions. Until United States v. Windsor, it was only legal in 12 states and District of Columbia. Beginning in July 2013, over forty federal and state courts cited Windsor to strike down state bans on the licensing or recognition of same-sex marriage. Missouri recognized same-sex marriages from out of state and same-sex marriages licensed by the City of St. Louis under two separate state court orders; two other jurisdictions issued such licenses as well. In Kansas, marriage licenses were available to same-sex couples in most counties, but the state did not recognize their validity. Some counties in Alabama issued marriage licenses to same-sex couples for three weeks until the state Supreme Court ordered probate judges to stop doing so. That court's ruling did not address the recognition of same-sex marriages already licensed in Alabama, but referred to them as "purported 'marriage licenses'".[55] In two additional states, same-sex marriages were previously legal between the time their bans were struck down and then stayed. Michigan recognized the validity of more than 300 marriage licenses issued to same-sex couples and those marriages. Arkansas recognized the more than 500 marriage licenses issued to same-sex couples there,[56] and the federal government had not taken a position on Arkansas's marriage licenses.
Article 12 of the European Convention on Human Rights states that: "Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right",[147] not limiting marriage to those in a heterosexual relationship. However, the ECHR stated in Schalk and Kopf v Austria that this provision was intended to limit marriage to heterosexual relationships, as it used the term "men and women" instead of "everyone".[142]
Common lesbian-feminist critiques leveled at bisexuality were that bisexuality was anti-feminist, that bisexuality was a form of false consciousness, and that bisexual women who pursue relationships with men were "deluded and desperate." Tensions between bisexual feminists and lesbian feminists have eased since the 1990s, as bisexual women have become more accepted in the feminist community,[92] but some lesbian feminists such as Julie Bindel are still critical of bisexuality. Bindel has described female bisexuality as a "fashionable trend" being promoted due to "sexual hedonism" and broached the question of whether bisexuality even exists.[93] She has also made tongue-in-cheek comparisons of bisexuals to cat fanciers and devil worshippers.[94] Sheila Jeffreys writes in The Lesbian Heresy that while many feminists are comfortable working alongside gay men, they are uncomfortable interacting with bisexual men. Jeffreys states that while gay men are unlikely to sexually harass women, bisexual men are just as likely to be bothersome to women as heterosexual men.[95]
On August 3, 2012 the first LGBT Viet Pride event was held in Hanoi, Vietnam with indoor activities such as film screenings, research presentations, and a bicycle rally on August 5, 2012 that attracted almost 200 people riding to support the LGBT cause. Viet Pride has since expanded, now taking place in 17 cities and provinces in Vietnam in the first weekend of August, attracting around 700 bikers in 2014 in Hanoi, and was reported on many mainstream media channels.[62]
The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland (CVP/PDC) started in 2011 with gathering signatures for a popular initiative entitled "For the couple and the family - No to the penalty of marriage". This initiative would change article 14 of the Swiss Federal Constitution and aimed to put equal fiscal rights and equal social security benefits between married couples and unmarried cohabiting couples. However, the text aimed to introduce as well in the Constitution for the first time ever the definition of marriage, which would be the sole "union between a man and a woman".[464] On 19 June 2015, the Parliament recommended that voters reject the initiative.[465] The Federal Council also recommended rejecting the initiative.[466][467] The Swiss people voted on the Christian Democrats' proposal in a referendum on 28 February 2016[468] and rejected it by 50.8% of the votes.[469]
The anti-LGBT discourse of these times equated both male and female homosexuality with mental illness. Inspired by Stokely Carmichael's "Black is Beautiful", Gay civil rights pioneer and participant in the Annual Reminders Frank Kameny originated the slogan "Gay is Good" in 1968[10] to counter social stigma and personal feelings of guilt and shame.
Additionally, Armenia and Israel recognize the marriages of same-sex couples validly entered into in other countries, though as of early 2019 there is no record of anyone taking advantage of the ruling in Armenia.[165] Furthermore, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights has issued a ruling which is expected to facilitate recognition in several countries in the Americas.[g][2]
There is no complete data on the number of same-sex marriages conducted in the United States. Marriages and divorces are recorded by states, counties, and territories, plus New York City and the District of Columbia, but not by the federal government. States such as Oregon do not distinguish between opposite-sex and same-sex marriages in their official records. The legal records on marriage and divorce belong to the states.[155] In August 2016, the Treasury Department estimated the number of same-sex marriages by linking the tax returns of same-sex couples who had filed jointly in 2014 with their Social Security records. (Although this method excluded couples who file singly, these are small in number; of all married couples who file taxes, 97.5% file jointly.) This research showed that in 2014 there were about 183,280 married same-sex couples in the country, or "roughly a third of 1 percent of all marriages" according to the New York Times.[156]
×