^ Jump up to: a b Joan C. Chrisler, Donald R. McCreary, Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology, volume 1 (2010, ISBN 1-4419-1465-X), page 486: "Transgender is a broad term characterized by a challenge of traditional gender roles and gender identity[. ...] For example, some cultures classify transgender individuals as a third gender, thereby treating this phenomenon as normative."

Some sources state that bisexuality encompasses romantic or sexual attraction to all gender identities or that it is romantic or sexual attraction to a person irrespective of that person's biological sex or gender, equating it to or rendering it interchangeable with pansexuality.[5][7] The concept of pansexuality deliberately rejects the gender binary, the "notion of two genders and indeed of specific sexual orientations",[7] as pansexual people are open to relationships with people who do not identify as strictly men or women.[5][7] Sometimes the phrase "bisexual umbrella" is used to describe any nonmonosexual behaviors, attractions, and identities, usually for purposes of collective action and challenging monosexist cultural assumptions.[16]

In late 2017, a Bulgarian same-sex couple, who married in the United Kingdom, filed a lawsuit in order to have their marriage recognised.[366] The Sofia Administrative Court ruled against them in January 2018.[367] A Sofia court granted a same-sex couple the right to live in Bulgaria on 29 June 2018. The couple, an Australian woman and her French spouse, had married in France in 2016, but were denied residency in Bulgaria a year later when they attempted to move there.[368]


Barack Obama's views on same-sex marriage varied over the course of his political career and became more consistently supportive of same-sex marriage rights over time. In the 1990s, he had supported same-sex marriage while campaigning for the Illinois Senate.[102][103] During the 2008 presidential campaign, he was opposed to same-sex marriage,[104] but he also opposed the 2008 California referendum that aimed at reversing a court ruling establishing same-sex marriage there.[105] In 2009, he opposed two opposing federal legislative proposals that would have banned or established same-sex marriage nationally, stating that each state had to decide the issue.[106][107] In December 2010, he expressed support for civil unions with rights equivalent to marriage and for federal recognition of same-sex relationships. He opposed a federal constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage.[108] He also stated that his position on same-sex marriage was "evolving" and that he recognized that civil unions from the perspective of same-sex couples was "not enough".[109] On May 9, 2012, President Obama became the first sitting president to support same-sex marriage. He still said the legal question belonged to the states.[110] In October 2014, Obama told an interviewer that his view had changed:

For the 25th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots in 1994, flag creator Baker was commissioned to create the world's largest rainbow flag.[17] It took months of planning and teams of volunteers to coordinate every aspect. The flag utilized the basic six colors and measured 30 feet (9.1 m) wide. Foot-wide (0.30 m) sections of the flag were given to individual sponsors as part of a fundraiser for the Stonewall anniversary event once the event had ended. Afterwards additional large sections of the flag were sent with activists and they were used in pride parades and LGBT marches worldwide.[17] The Guinness Book of World Records confirmed it as the world's largest flag.[18]
Civil rights campaigning in support of marriage without distinction as to sex or sexual orientation began in the 1970s.[358] In 1972, the now overturned Baker v. Nelson saw the Supreme Court of the United States decline to become involved.[359] The issue became prominent from around 1993, when the Supreme Court of Hawaii ruled in Baehr v. Lewin that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. That ruling led to federal and state actions to explicitly abridge marriage on the basis of sex in order to prevent the marriages of same-sex couples from being recognized by law, the most prominent of which was the 1996 federal DOMA. In 2003, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. From 2004 through to 2015, as the tide of public opinion continued to move towards support of same-sex marriage, various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes (referendums and initiatives), and federal court rulings established same-sex marriage in thirty-six of the fifty states.
In Vietnam, currently only a marriage between a man and a woman is recognized. Vietnam's Ministry of Justice began seeking advice on legalizing same-sex marriage from other governmental and non-governmental organizations in April and May 2012, and planned to further discuss the issue at the National Assembly in Spring 2013.[472] However, in February 2013, the Ministry of Justice requested that the National Assembly avoid action until 2014.[473] At a hearing to discuss marriage law reforms in April 2013, deputy minister of health Nguyen Viet Tien proposed that same-sex marriage be made legal immediately.[474]
Strictly speaking, there's no such thing as a "sex change operation." A woman can elect to have cosmetic surgeries done to alter her physical appearance to match conventional norms associated with the gender with which she identifies, but anyone can have these procedures done, regardless of their gender identity. These surgeries are not limited to transsexual people.

Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that same-sex attraction does not have adaptive value because it has no association with potential reproductive success. Instead, bisexuality can be due to normal variation in brain plasticity. More recently, it has been suggested that same-sex alliances may have helped males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities. Same-sex allies could have helped females to move to the safer and resource richer center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their offspring successfully.[56]
In the BBC TV science fiction show Torchwood, several of the main characters appear to have fluid sexuality. Most prominent among these is Captain Jack Harkness, a pansexual who is the lead character and an otherwise conventional science fiction action hero. Within the logic of the show, where characters can also interact with alien species, producers sometimes use the term "omnisexual" to describe him.[127] Jack's ex, Captain John Hart is also bisexual.[128] Of his female exes, significantly at least one ex-wife and at least one woman with whom he has had a child have been indicated. Some critics draw the conclusion that the series more often shows Jack with men than women.[129] Creator Russell T Davies says one of pitfalls of writing a bisexual character is you "fall into the trap" of "only having them sleep with men." He describes of the show's fourth series, "You'll see the full range of his appetites, in a really properly done way."[130] The preoccupation with bisexuality has been seen by critics as complementary to other aspects of the show's themes. For heterosexual character Gwen Cooper, for whom Jack harbors romantic feelings, the new experiences she confronts at Torchwood, in the form of "affairs and homosexuality and the threat of death", connote not only the Other but a "missing side" to the Self.[131] Under the influence of an alien pheromone, Gwen kisses a woman in Episode 2 of the series. In Episode 1, heterosexual Owen Harper kisses a man to escape a fight when he is about to take the man's girlfriend. Quiet Toshiko Sato is in love with Owen, but has also had brief romantic relationships with a female alien and a male human. British newspaper The Sun ran the headline "Dr Ooh gets four gay pals" prior to the first series, describing all of Torchwood's cast as being bisexual.[132]
While the traditional rainbow arc is a 'religious symbol' the rainbow used to show gay pride is actually a 'banner' ... it's a BEAUTIFUL banner with its many colors all lined up, side by side. And that is why the rainbow banner or 'flag' (not the 'arc,' which is the colors top to bottom) is used. Each 'color' represents people in 'real life' ... we come in many colors and many styles, but see how BEAUTIFUL we all are when we stand side by side? That is the 'message' behind the Gay Pride Rainbow banners and flags ... and I believe its a message that the rest of the world needs to at least think about ... I'm a straight woman, 57, but I have been a supporter of gay people since I was a seven year old ... and I still am a supporter of gay rights. I feel that MY rights are made to mean LESS when gays and others can't share them with me ... it's only when EVERYONE shares something that it truly becomes EQUAL ... so I'm for gay marriages, gay businesses, and gay PEOPLE. Since I worked for and with gays during my professional career (psychologist) I have been told I'm not a 'fag hag' but an HONORARY GAY MAN ... and I am extremely proud of that since I'm a happy married straight WOMAN. If gays can 'reach out' like that to me, why can't others reach out in the same way toward gays. I don't understand ... I just don't understand.
At the turn of the 21st century it was clear that the evolution of rights for same-sex couples depended to a great extent upon the interplay of a country’s institutional forces. In parliamentary unitary systems, such as those of the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom, for example, legislatures (and the executives derived from them) were instrumental in the success or failure of such laws. In other countries, particularly those with federal political systems and strong judiciaries, such as Canada, South Africa, and the United States, the courts played a vital role. For yet another group of polities, such as Switzerland and many U.S. states, institutional rules enabled voters to take a direct role in the passage or rejection of legislation.
Bisexuality is often misunderstood as a form of adultery or polyamory, and a popular misconception is that bisexuals must always be in relationships with men and women simultaneously. Rather, individuals attracted to both males and females, like people of any other orientation, may live a variety of sexual lifestyles. These include lifelong monogamy, serial monogamy, polyamory, polyfidelity, casual sexual activity with individual partners, casual group sex, and celibacy. For those with more than one sexual partner, these may, or may not, all be of the same gender.
Societies have resolved the intertwined issues of sexuality, reproduction, and marriage in myriad ways. Their responses regarding the morality, desirability, and administrative perquisites of same-sex partnerships have been equally diverse. Notably, however, by the beginning of the 21st century most countries opted for one of only three legal resolutions to these intersecting problems: to ignore same-sex partnerships, to criminalize them, or to grant them a status similar or equal to that of heterosexual marriage. Many countries have yet to reach a consensus on these issues. (See also marriage law.)
On 21 February 2017, Minister for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs, and Civil Liberties Helena Dalli said that she was preparing a bill to legalise same-sex marriage.[272] The bill was presented to Parliament on 5 July 2017.[273] The bill's last reading took place in Parliament on 12 July 2017, where it was approved 66-1. It was signed into law and published in the Government Gazette on 1 August 2017.[274] Malta became the 14th country in Europe to legalise same-sex marriage.[275][276]
In Steve Lenius' original 2001 paper, he explored the acceptance of bisexuality in a supposedly pansexual BDSM community. The reasoning behind this is that "coming-out" had become primarily the territory of the gay and lesbian, with bisexuals feeling the push to be one or the other (and being right only half the time either way). What he found in 2001, was that people in BDSM were open to discussion about the topic of bisexuality and pansexuality and all controversies they bring to the table, but personal biases and issues stood in the way of actively using such labels. A decade later, Lenius (2011) looked back on his study and considered if anything has changed. He concluded that the standing of bisexuals in the BDSM and kink community was unchanged, and believed that positive shifts in attitude were moderated by society's changing views towards different sexualities and orientations. But Lenius (2011) does emphasize that the pansexual promoting BDSM community helped advance greater acceptance of alternative sexualities.[88][89]

With several countries revising their marriage laws to recognize same-sex couples in the 21st century, all major English dictionaries have revised their definition of the word marriage to either drop gender specifications or supplement them with secondary definitions to include gender-neutral language or explicit recognition of same-sex unions.[23][24] The Oxford English Dictionary has recognized same-sex marriage since 2000.[25]
On Sunday, June 28, 1970, at around noon, in New York gay activist groups held their own pride parade, known as the Christopher Street Liberation Day, to recall the events of Stonewall one year earlier. On November 2, 1969, Craig Rodwell, his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, and Linda Rhodes proposed the first gay pride parade to be held in New York City by way of a resolution at the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organizations (ERCHO) meeting in Philadelphia.[18]

The prenatal hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to excess levels of sex hormones have masculinized brains and show increased homosexuality. Studies to provide evidence for the masculinization of the brain have however not been conducted to date. Research on special conditions such as CAH and DES indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female–female sex fantasies in adults. Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality.[26]
LaVey's (1991) examination at autopsy of 18 homosexual men, 1 bisexual man, 16 presumably heterosexual men and 6 presumably heterosexual women found that the INAH 3 nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus of homosexual men was smaller than that of heterosexual men and the size of heterosexual women. Although grouped with homosexuals, the INAH 3 size of the one bisexual subject was similar to that of the heterosexual men.[25]
India Legal since 2018[339] Proposed Proposed Proposed Declared legal by courts, but currently not accepted by the military themselves;[340] additional laws proposed /Discrimination prohibited in state and government bodies only A third gender option (hijra) besides male and female is available; transgender people have a constitutional right to change gender[341]
^ Rowson, Everett K. (1991). "The Effeminates of Early Medina". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 111 (4): 671–93. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.693.1504. doi:10.2307/603399. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 603399. ... They played an important role in the development of Arabic music in Umayyad Mecca and, especially, Medina, where they were numbered among the most celebrated singers and instrumentalists ....
The classification of a person as male or female. At birth, infants are assigned a sex, usually based on the appearance of their external anatomy. (This is what is written on the birth certificate.) A person's sex, however, is actually a combination of bodily characteristics including: chromosomes, hormones, internal and external reproductive organs, and secondary sex characteristics.

While the traditional rainbow arc is a 'religious symbol' the rainbow used to show gay pride is actually a 'banner' ... it's a BEAUTIFUL banner with its many colors all lined up, side by side. And that is why the rainbow banner or 'flag' (not the 'arc,' which is the colors top to bottom) is used. Each 'color' represents people in 'real life' ... we come in many colors and many styles, but see how BEAUTIFUL we all are when we stand side by side? That is the 'message' behind the Gay Pride Rainbow banners and flags ... and I believe its a message that the rest of the world needs to at least think about ... I'm a straight woman, 57, but I have been a supporter of gay people since I was a seven year old ... and I still am a supporter of gay rights. I feel that MY rights are made to mean LESS when gays and others can't share them with me ... it's only when EVERYONE shares something that it truly becomes EQUAL ... so I'm for gay marriages, gay businesses, and gay PEOPLE. Since I worked for and with gays during my professional career (psychologist) I have been told I'm not a 'fag hag' but an HONORARY GAY MAN ... and I am extremely proud of that since I'm a happy married straight WOMAN. If gays can 'reach out' like that to me, why can't others reach out in the same way toward gays. I don't understand ... I just don't understand.
The 21st Metro Manila Pride March in 2015, entitled Fight For Love, was held on the 25th of July. The turnout of the event was an estimated number of 2,000 participants.[56] The following 2016 Metro Manila Pride March was themed Let Love In. There was an uncertainty whether or not the event would take place due to the Orlando Nightclub Shooting, but the event still pushed through. The march began at Luneta Park on the 25th of June 2016.[57] The 2017 Pride March was entitled #HereTogether. On the 24th of June that year, members and supporters of the LGBT Community gathered at Plaza de los Alcaldes, Marikina to begin the 2017 Metro Manila Pride March.[58]
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